Longitudinal assessment of energy expenditure in pregnancy by the doubly labeled water method.


Twelve women were studied before pregnancy and at 6-wk intervals from 6 to 36 wk gestation. Total energy expenditure (TEE) by the doubly labeled water method, basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy intake, and body composition were assessed on each occasion. There was substantial interindividual variation in the response to pregnancy. Mean total energy costs… (More)