Longitudinal Analysis of Time, Engagement, and Achievement in At-Risk versus Non-Risk Students

  title={Longitudinal Analysis of Time, Engagement, and Achievement in At-Risk versus Non-Risk Students},
  author={Charles R. Greenwood},
  journal={Exceptional Children},
  pages={521 - 535}
  • C. Greenwood
  • Published 1 May 1991
  • Education
  • Exceptional Children
This longitudinal study investigated the effects of time spent in academic instruction and time engaged on elementary students' academic achievement gains. Three groups were compared over grades as follows: (a) an at-risk experimental group of low-socioeconomic status (SES) students for whom teachers implemented classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) beginning with the second semester of first grade continuing through Grade 3; (h) an equivalent at-risk control group; and (c) a non-risk comparison group… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Classroom Dynamics and Children at Risk: A Followup

The two studies reported in this article followed up on an initial investigation of classroom dynamics and young children identified as at risk (AR) for developing learning, emotional, and behavioral

Classifying Academically At-Risk First Graders into Engagement Types: Association with Long-Term Achievement Trajectories

The findings support the importance of teaching temperament-based regulatory skills and of providing a positive psychological climate for children's academic learning in identifying subtypes of academic engagement.

Teacher-Student Support, Effortful Engagement, and Achievement: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study.

It is suggested that achievement, effortful engagement, and TSRQ form part of a dynamic system of influences in the early grades, such that intervening at any point in this nexus may alter children's school trajectories.

Prevention Strategies for At-Risk Students and Students with EBD in Urban Elementary Schools

This article describes a prevention program designed to provide "universal" interventions (i.e., classroom management, social skills, peer tutoring in reading) for at-risk students and those

Practical Effects of Classwide Mathematics Intervention

Abstract. The current article presents additional analyses of a classwide mathematics intervention, from a previously reported randomized controlled trial, to offer new information about the

Learning-related skills and academic achievement in academically at-risk first graders.

Student engagement and classroom variables in improving mathematics achievement

The study explored how much student engagement and classroom variables predicted student achievement in mathematics. Since students were nested within a classroom, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM)

Can Students Themselves Narrow the Socioeconomic-Status-Based Achievement Gap through Their Own Persistence and Learning Time?.

Despite decades of educational reforms, the achievement gap based on socioeconomic status (SES) persists in the United States. Not only does the SES-based achievement gap persist, it has also been

Effects of Collaborative Peer Tutoring on Urban Seventh Graders

Abstract The effects of a collaborative peer tutor teaching program on the self-concept and school-based attitudes of seventh-grade students at a large urban junior high school were explored. Many of

Relations Between Instructional Practices and On-Task Behavior in Classrooms Serving American Indian Students

ABSTRACT Achievement disparities between American Indian students and non-American Indian peers are persistent and well documented. Student engagement is a promising target for intervention given its



Teacher- versus peer-mediated instruction: an ecobehavioral analysis of achievement outcomes.

Results indicated that the classwide peer tutoring, compared to the teacher's procedure, produced more student academic responding and higher weekly test scores, regardless of treatment order or subject matter content.

A Follow-up of Follow Through: The Later Effects of the Direct Instruction Model on Children in Fifth and Sixth Grades

The later effects of the Direct Instruction Follow Through program were assessed at five diverse sites. Low-income fifth and sixth graders who had completed the full 3 years of this first- through

Field replication of classwide peer tutoring.

Analysis of group and individual results indicated that both teacher instructional procedures and classwide peer tutoring were effective in increasing spelling performance above pretest levels and participant satisfaction with the program was generally high.

Teaching Reading and Language to the Disadvantaged--What We Have Learned from Field Research.

In late 1967, Project Follow Through was reorganized to select, test, and evaluate promising but different educational programs for disadvantaged youngsters in the first three grades. Now, nearly ten

Classwide Peer Tutoring with Mildly Handicapped High School Students

Effects of classwide peer tutoring on the academic performance of 14 mildly handicapped and 36 nondisabled students enrolled in three 10th-grade social studies classrooms were examined and implications for secondary, mainstreamed students and teachers were discussed.

Long-Term Academic Effects of the Direct Instruction Project Follow Through

The Elementary SchoolJournal Volume 84, Number 4 ? 1984 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. 0013-5984/84/8404-0002$01.00 It has been 15 years since the Project Follow Through program

Classwide Peer Tutoring

Twelve years of data indicate that at risk students and students with disabilities in programs using CWPT acquired literacy skills at a faster rate, retain more, and made greater advances in social competency than with a variety of standard instructional methods.

How Much “Opportunity to Respond” Does the Minority Disadvantaged Student Receive in School?

Festinger, L. A theory of cognitive dissonance. New York: Harper and Row, 1957. Gillespie, P. A planned change approach to the implementation of the IEP provision of P.L. 94-142. Washington DC:

The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring

T w o University of Chicago doctoral students in education, Anania (1982, 1983) and Burke (1984), completed dissertations in which they compared student learning under the following three conditions

A model of school learning.

This job is inherently difficult because behavior is complex and has a multiplicity of causes. To deal with it, educational psychologists have evolved a number of concepts which they find useful in