Longevity and sexual maturity vary across species with number of cortical neurons, and humans are no exception

  title={Longevity and sexual maturity vary across species with number of cortical neurons, and humans are no exception},
  author={S. Herculano-Houzel},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Neurology},
  pages={1689 - 1705}
Maximal longevity of endotherms has long been considered to increase with decreasing specific metabolic rate, and thus with increasing body mass. Using a dataset of over 700 species, here I show that maximal longevity, age at sexual maturity, and postmaturity longevity across bird and mammalian species instead correlate primarily, and universally, with the number of cortical brain neurons. Correlations with metabolic rate and body mass are entirely explained by clade‐specific relationships… Expand
Big size, big life: A myth!!- Longevity?
The Anthropologists and researchers in the field of evolution and human behaviour, was under the postulation that uniqueness of the human species is having a remarkably lengthy childhood andExpand
Are brain weights estimated from scaling relationships suitable for comparative studies of animal cognition?
To test the link between performance in various cognitive tasks and variation in brain size, the authors relied on data for body weight, which was transformed into ‘estimated brain weight’ using the allometric scaling relationship between brain and body size, an approach that can be found in other papers which lack sufficient neuroanatomical data. Expand
The Development of Sensorimotor Cognition in Common Ravens (Corvus corax) and its Comparative Evolution
Evolution involves developmental change. Species comparisons play an important role in comparative cognition because they can uncover common patterns and shared principles in cognitive evolution.Expand
Development and Longevity: Cellular and Molecular Determinants – A Mini-Review
The basis for the relationship between rate of development and longevity lies in adaptations that have occurred through evolution at multiple levels of biological complexity: organism, organ, cellular, and molecular. Expand
The Relevance of Ecological Transitions to Intelligence in Marine Mammals
It would still be prudent to follow Macphail’s caution that it is premature to make strong comparative statements without more empirical evidence, but an approach that includes learning more about how animals flexibly link information across multiple representations could be a productive way of comparing species by allowing them to use their specific strengths within comparative tasks. Expand
The Essence of Healt h and Longevity
The health of global societies is worsening; this is reflected not only in the increasing prevalence of co-morbidities in the population but also in already registered shortened lifespan. SystemsExpand
Bridging the Gap between Alzheimer’s Disease and Alzheimer’s-like Diseases in Animals
This review reveals up to date knowledge in pathogenesis, hallmarks, diagnostic approaches and modalities in AD faced up with ALD related to different animal species and describes the importance of extensive in vivo models and extensive pre-clinical studies on aging animals as a suitable model for AD disease. Expand
Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Cell–Cell Communication in the Nervous System: Focus on Neurological Diseases
The characteristics and manageability of exosomes make them potential candidates for delivering selected molecules, e.g., therapeutic drugs, to specific target tissues and for accurately diagnosing pathological conditions, and assessing prognosis and response to treatment in a variety of disorders. Expand
Whaling, Bullfighting, and the Conditional Value of Tradition
  • P. Casal
  • Sociology, Medicine
  • Res publica
  • 2020
An account of the value of tradition is developed that completes that of Samuel Scheffler and employs it to discuss whaling and bullfighting and is applicable to many other practices the paper describes, and its relevance extends also beyond animal ethics. Expand


An analysis of the relationship between metabolism, developmental schedules, and longevity using phylogenetic independent contrasts.
The results show that, after correcting for body mass and phylogeny, basal metabolic rate does not correlate with longevity in eutherians or birds, although it negatively correlates with marsupial longevity and time to maturity, and it is confirmed that age at maturity is typically proportional to adult life span. Expand
Age-related neuronal loss in the rat brain starts at the end of adolescence
It is found that a major increase in number of neurons occurs during adolescence, followed by a significant trend of widespread and progressive neuronal loss that begins as early as 3 months of age, until decreases in numbers of neurons become evident at 12 or 22 years of age. Expand
Brain weight and life-span in primate species.
These findings suggest that in haplorhine primates the genetic systems controlling brain growth are linked to the systems governing the life cycle so that species with longer cycles have larger brains. Expand
Cellular and molecular longevity pathways: the old and the new
This work surveys recent findings highlighting the interplay of various genetic, epigenetic, and cell-specific factors, and also symbiotic relationships, as longevity determinants, within the framework of emerging, integrative views of aging. Expand
A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life‐history traits
By providing a reference value for longevity and other life‐history traits, AnAge can prove valuable to a broad range of biologists working in evolutionary biology, ecology, zoology, physiology and conservation biology. Expand
Measurements of age-related changes of physiological processes that predict lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.
These findings suggest that the declines of pharyngeal pumping and body movement cause a decline in survival probability or that a shared regulatory system mediates the declines in pharynGEal pumping, body movement, and survival probability. Expand
Body size, energy metabolism and lifespan
  • J. Speakman
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2005
A novel comparison using daily energy expenditure (DEE), rather than BMR, suggests that lifetime expenditure of energy per gram of tissue is NOT independent of body mass, and that tissue in smaller animals expends more energy before expiring than tissue in larger animals. Expand
Energy Metabolism, Brain Size and Longevity in Mammals
  • M. Hofman
  • Medicine, Biology
  • The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1983
The maximum potential life span of a mammal was found to be proportional to the product of its degree of encephalization and the reciprocal of its metabolic rate per unit weight. Expand
Mammalian Brains Are Made of These: A Dataset of the Numbers and Densities of Neuronal and Nonneuronal Cells in the Brain of Glires, Primates, Scandentia, Eulipotyphlans, Afrotherians and Artiodactyls, and Their Relationship with Body Mass
The relationship between numbers of neurons, neuronal densities and body mass is reexamine, and it is found that in the rest of brain, but not in the cerebral cortex or cerebellum, there is a single scaling rule that applies to average neuronal cell size, which increases with the linear dimension of the body. Expand
Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories.
This hypothesis also accounts for the authors' late maturity, small size at weaning, and high fertility, and has implications for past human habitat choice and social organization and for ideas about the importance of extended learning and paternal provisioning in human evolution. Expand