Long-term training affects cerebellar processing in skilled keyboard players

@article{Koeneke2004LongtermTA,
  title={Long-term training affects cerebellar processing in skilled keyboard players},
  author={Susan Koeneke and Kai Lutz and Torsten W{\"u}stenberg and Lutz J{\"a}ncke},
  journal={NeuroReport},
  year={2004},
  volume={15},
  pages={1279-1282}
}
We studied cerebellar hemodynamic responses in highly skilled keyboard players and control subjects during complex tasks requiring unimanual and bimanual finger movements. Both groups showed strong hemodynamic responses in the cerebellum during the task conditions. However, non-musicians showed generally stronger hemodynamic responses in the cerebellum than keyboard players. We conclude that, due to long-term motor practice a different cortical activation pattern can be visualized in keyboard… 

How finger tapping practice enhances efficiency of motor control

TLDR
There is a decrease in neural activity in the left hemisphere from pretraining to posttraining, whereas right hemispheric activity remained constant across training, which likely reflects the initially limited capacity of the right hemisphere to control demanding left-hand movements.

Using the Movement-Related Cortical Potential to Study Motor Skill Learning

TLDR
Findings indicate differences in the amplitude and onset times of the MRCP between experienced and novice performers, which have been attributed to long-term training in the experts.

Extensive training of elementary finger tapping movements changes the pattern of motor cortex excitability

TLDR
Changes in corticospinal excitability associated with longer training of elementary, maximum-speed tapping movements are investigated and may constitute a necessary precursor for inducing plastic changes within the motor system.

How ¢nger tapping practice enhances e⁄ciency of motor control

TLDR
There is a decrease in neural activity in the left hemisphere from training to posttraining, whereas right hemispheric activity remained constant across training, which likely re-ects the initially limited capacity of the right hemisphere to control demanding left-hand movements.

The brain of opera singers: experience-dependent changes in functional activation.

TLDR
First evidence that the training of vocal skills is accompanied by increased functional activation of bilateral primary somatosensory cortex representing articulators and larynx is provided, providing the first evidence that vocal skills training correlates with increased activity of a cortical network for enhanced kinesthetic motor control and sensorimotor guidance.

Influences of Instructions and Expertise on the Mechanisms Involved During a Working Memory Task An EEG Study

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of instructions and expertise upon cortical mechanisms during a working memory task. Ten professional pianists and ten musically naive subjects

Assessing Human Cortical Activation and Network During Pitch Discrimination Task in Quiet and in Noisy Background

In spite of extensive research conducted in studying pitch memory processing, knowledge about the functional anatomy of the brain while performing pitch discrimination task is still lacking. The

When the brain plays music: auditory–motor interactions in music perception and production

TLDR
This work reviews the cognitive neuroscience literature of both motor and auditory domains, highlighting the value of studying interactions between these systems in a musical context, and proposes some ideas concerning the role of the premotor cortex in integration of higher order features of music with appropriately timed and organized actions.

Specialized Somatosensory-Motor Integration Functions in Musicians.

TLDR
Comparing physiological indices of somatosensory functions between pianists and nonmusicians revealed an association between these integration functions and motor performance in the pianists, suggesting that extensive piano practice reorganizes somatoensory-motor integration functions so as to enable fine control of dexterous finger movements during piano performances.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 27 REFERENCES

Cortical activations in primary and secondary motor areas for complex bimanual movements in professional pianists.

Motor cortex and hand motor skills: Structural compliance in the human brain

TLDR
The size of the ILPG was negatively correlated with age of commencement of musical training in keyboard players, supporting the hypothesis that the human motor cortex can exhibit functionally induced and long‐lasting structural adaptations.

Effects of musical training on speech-induced modulation in corticospinal excitability

TLDR
In all subjects, the amplitude of MEPs in the right FDI was facilitated by reading aloud, however, the musicians also showed significant facilitation in the left FDI, while controls did not.

Practice-related changes in human brain functional anatomy during nonmotor learning.

TLDR
Examination of the functional anatomy of the human brain with positron emission tomography during the naive and practiced performance of a simple verbal response selection task indicates that two distinct circuits can be used forverbal response selection and normal subjects can change the brain circuits used during task performance following less than 15 min of practice.

Cerebellar volume of musicians.

TLDR
It is proposed that the significantly greater cerebellar volume in male musicians and the positive correlation between relative cerebellAR volume and lifelong intensity of practice represents structural adaptation to long-term motor and cognitive functional demands in the human cerebellum.

A Role for the Cerebellum in Learning Movement Coordination

  • W. T. Thach
  • Biology, Psychology
    Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
  • 1998
TLDR
The theory is extended to show how parallel fibers could implement both the coordination of complex movements and the learning of new movements, and would permit optimized complex movement behaviors to respond to specific behavioral contexts rapidly, stereotypically, and automatically.

Evidence for training-induced crossmodal reorganization of cortical functions in trumpet players

TLDR
It is suggested that training-induced reorganization in musicians leads to a qualitatively different way to process multisensory information that favors an early stage of cortical processing, which is modified by the connections between multimodal and auditory neurons from thalamus to primary somatosensory area.

Brain Structures Differ between Musicians and Non-Musicians

TLDR
Using a voxel-by-voxel morphometric technique, gray matter volume differences in motor, auditory, and visual-spatial brain regions are found when comparing professional musicians (keyboard players) with a matched group of amateur musicians and non-musicians.

Cerebellar timing systems.