Long term time variability of cosmic rays and possible relevance to the development of life on Earth

  title={Long term time variability of cosmic rays and possible relevance to the development of life on Earth},
  author={A.D.Erlykin and A.W.Wolfendale},
An analysis is made of the manner in which the cosmic ray intensity at Earth has varied over its existence and its possible relevance to both the origin and the evolution of life. Much of the analysis relates to the ’high energy’ cosmic rays (E > 10eV ; = 0.1PeV ) and their variability due to the changing proximity of the solar system to supernova remnants which are generally believed to be responsible for most cosmic rays up to PeV energies. It is pointed out that, on a statistical basis… Expand
Astrophysical ionizing radiation and Earth: a brief review and census of intermittent intense sources.
This review estimates the intensities and rates of occurrence of many kinds of strong radiation bursts by astrophysical entities, ranging from gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances to the Sun itself, and notes for the first time that so-called "short-hard" gamma-rays bursts are a substantial threat, comparable in magnitude to supernovae and greater than that of the higher-luminosity long bursts considered in most past work. Expand
Cosmic Rays and Biosphere: Origin and Evolution of Terrestrial Life
1 • The Earth’s biosphere was born and has developed with permanent ecological factor, namely, with an ever present background of ionizing radiations. The latter are, first of all, naturalExpand
Cosmic rays and terrestrial life: A brief review
The mechanisms of cosmic rays affecting terrestrial life are described and the potential implications of the variation of high-energy astrophysical radiation on the history of life on earth are reviewed. Expand
Terrestrial Effects of High Energy Cosmic Rays
Abstr act: On geological timescales, the Earth is likely to be exposed to higher than the usual flux of high energy cosmic rays (HECRs) from astrophysical sources such as nearby supernovae, gamma rayExpand
On the possibility of galactic cosmic ray-induced radiolysis-powered life in subsurface environments in the Universe
  • D. Atri
  • Physics, Medicine
  • Journal of The Royal Society Interface
  • 2016
Two mechanisms are proposed through which GCR-induced secondary particles can be utilized for biological use in subsurface environments: GCRs injecting energy in the environment through particle-induced radiolysis and organic synthesis from GCR secondaries interacting with the medium. Expand
On the possibility of cosmic ray-induced ionizing radiation-powered life in subsurface environments in the Universe
Photosynthesis is a highly efficient mechanism developed by terrestrial life to utilize the energy from photons of solar origin for biological use. Subsurface regions are isolated from theExpand
Cosmogenic nuclide enhancement via deposition from long-period comets as a test of the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis
Abstract We explore the idea that detectable excursions in 26 Al may arise from direct deposition by any bolide, and excursions in 14 C and 10 Be abundances in the atmosphere may result fromExpand
Forty-First Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Environmental Radiation and Life-A Broad View.
A broad overview of present day radioecology is provided, which includes the use of radioactive tracers to study ecosystem functions, the fate and transport of radionuclides in the biosphere, and radiation effects on plants and animals. Expand
From Cosmic Explosions to Terrestrial Fires?
This work argues for the likelihood of cosmic ray ionization of the atmosphere and electron cascades leading to more frequent lightning and therefore an increase in nitrate deposition and wildfires, and the potential exists for a large increase in the prehuman nitrate flux onto the surface. Expand
TeV γ-ray observation of nearby Active Galactic Nuclei with the MAGIC telescope: exploring the high energy region of the multiwavelength picture
The first three chapters of this thesis provide an introduction to the relevant physics topics discussed, starting from the basic notions and open questions about the Cosmic Rays (chapter 1), goingExpand


Supernova remnants and the origin of the cosmic radiation: II. Spectral variations in space and time
The model described by us earlier (Erlykin and Wolfendale 2001a J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 27 941), which involves Monte Carlo calculations for cosmic rays accelerated by supernova remnants in theExpand
Long-term geomagnetic changes and their possible role in regional atmospheric ionization and climate
Cosmic rays form the primary source of the lower atmospheres ionization, which may potentially affect the regional climate. The ionization at a given location is affected by two factors solarExpand
The spiral structure of the Milky Way, cosmic rays, and ice age epochs on Earth
Abstract The short term variability of the galactic cosmic ray flux (CRF) reaching Earth has been previously associated with variations in the global low altitude cloud cover. This CRF variabilityExpand
The role of cosmic rays in the atmospheric processes
The energy flux of galactic cosmic rays falling on the earth's atmosphere is small in comparison with solar electromagnetic irradiation (by 108 times). But at altitudes of h ~ 3 to 35 km in theExpand
Status of the EAS studies of cosmic rays with energy below 10**16 eV
This paper briefly summarizes the status of the cosmic ray observations by EAS (Extended Air Shower) experiments with energy below 10**16eV and the related studies of the hadronic interaction models.Expand
Forbush Decreases of Cosmic Rays and Total Ozone at Northern Higher Middle Latitudes
Space weather affects the Earth's atmosphere in many ways and through various phenomena. Among them, geomagnetic storms and the variability of the galactic cosmic ray flux belong to the mostExpand
Supernova remnants and the origin of the cosmic radiation: I. SNR acceleration models and their predictions
An analysis is made of the cosmic ray energy spectrum expected from supernova remnant acceleration of cosmic rays for energies below the well known knee at 3×106 GeV. Two models are considered; thatExpand
A comparison of cosmic-ray energy spectra in Galactic spiral arm and interarm regions
A detailed comparison is made of the cosmic gamma -ray energy spectra from directions associated with the Orion spiral arm and, separately, the interarm region. It is found that the spectra areExpand
A single source of cosmic rays in the range - eV
The advent of new and improved extensive air shower (EAS) arrays - and the attendant generation of data of higher statistical precision than hitherto - has led us to return to an old problem: theExpand
Runaway breakdown and electric discharges in thunderstorms
This review concerns the theory of the avalanche multiplication of high-energy (0.1 – 10 MeV) electrons in a neutral material, a newly discovered phenomenon known as runaway breakdown (RB). InExpand