Long-term spatial memory in clark's nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana

  title={Long-term spatial memory in clark's nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana
  author={Russell P. Balda and Alan C. Kamil},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
Abstract Clark's nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbiana, are known to depend on cached seeds as their major food source throughout the winter and spring at high elevations; they use spatial memory to locate their hidden seed caches. Field observations of caching in the autumn and recovery in the spring suggest that memory for cache sites may last as long as 7–9 months. Twenty-five Clark's nutcrackers were tested for their ability to remember the location of their caches after intervals of 11, 82… 
Clark's nutcrackers Nucifraga columbiana remember the size of their cached seeds
Clark’s nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) hide thousands of seeds in subterranean caches that they later recover using spatial information about cache location. In two experiments, we tested whether
Clark's Nutcracker (Aves: Corvidae) Spatial Memory: Interference Effects on Cache Recovery Performance?
Clark's nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbiana, accurately v recover thousands of caches per year in the field. Previous experiments have confirmed that these birds possess excellent, long-lasting
Clark's nutcracker spatial memory: The importance of large, structural cues
Birds were no more accurate in recovering caches when more objects were on the floor of a large experimental room nor when this room was subdivided with a set of panels, which may reflect the imperfect reliability of smaller, closer cues in the natural habitat of Clark's nutcrackers.
Long-term spatial memory in four seed-caching corvid species
The results corroborate the species differences in spatial memory that have been observed in previous studies and cannot be concluded that these four species differ in their long-term spatial memory abilities.
Clark's nutcracker spatial memory: many errors might not be due to forgetting
It is concluded that the impressive achievements documented by previous studies are underestimates of the spatial memory abilities of Clark's nutcrackers.
Interference effects in the memory for serially presented locations in Clark's nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbiana.
  • Jody L. Lewis, A. Kamil
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of experimental psychology. Animal behavior processes
  • 2006
The authors tested the spatial memory of serially presented locations in Clark's nutcrackers and found evidence for proactive and retroactive interference.
Do Clark’s nutcrackers demonstrate what-where-when memory on a cache-recovery task?
The differential recovery after the long RI demonstrates that nutcrackers may have the capacity for WWW memory during this task, but it is not clear why it was influenced by RI duration.
Examination of long-term visual memorization capacity in the Clark’s nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana)
The hypothesis that nutcrackers’ spatial memory is a specialized adaptation tied to their natural history of food-caching and recovery, and not to a larger long-term, general memory capacity, is supported.
Clark’s Nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) Flexibly Adapt Caching Behavior to a Cooperative Context
It is reported that males increased caching in response to a manipulation in which caches were artificially added, suggesting the birds could adapt to the cooperative nature of the task.
I examined how pinyon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus) assess and determine the risk of pilferage to their caches. Jays were allowed to cache in an open room while alone or while being observed by a


Recovery of Cached Seeds by a Captive Nucifraga caryocatactes
A single Eurasian Nutcracker was tested in a cage to determine if it had a spatial and/or temporal pattern to cache and recover seeds of Pinus sibirica and showed evidence of a spatial template consistant with an optimal foraging strategy in patches for harvesting caches.
A comparative study of cache recovery by three corvid species
Abstract The cache recovery behaviour of Clark's nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbiana , pinyon jays, Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus , and scrub jays, Aphelocoma coerulescens , was studied following each of
Long-term memory for cache sites in the black-capped chickadee
Black-capped chickadees, Parus atricapillus, use memory to relocate stored food. Two experiments tested their ability to recover caches after long retention intervals. The first experiment tested
How Nutcrackers Find Their Seed Stores
-The Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) stores conifer seeds in the late summer and fall of each year. During winter and spring, seeds from buried caches are the major food of nutcrackers and
How marsh tits find their hoards: the roles of site preference and spatial memory.
Marsh tits (Parus palustris) store single food items in scattered locations and recover them hours or days later, and during recovery they are more likely to visit a site of any preference value if they have stored a seed there that day than if they had not.
Differential memory for different cache sites by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana)
When Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) recover their caches, accuracy declines as recovery proceeds. Two experiments investigated this phenomenon. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated
Revisits to emptied cache sites by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana)
The results of two experiments demonstrate that neither leaving signs of previous digging activity nor leaving many pine seeds in the caches affects the tendency to revisit.
An experimental analysis of cache recovery in Clark's nutcracker
Five hypotheses of cache recovery behaviour in Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) were examined experimentally and it was found that seed-caching nutcrackers relocated caches using large objects as remembered visual cues.
Memory for the location of stored food in marsh tits
It seems likely that recovery of stored food by marsh tits and other birds occurs by memory of storage sites, not by chance encounter during foraging.
Food storing by marsh tits
Wild marsh tits (Parus palustris) were allowed to hoard radioactively labelled sunflower seeds, which were subsequently found using a portable scintillation counter, suggesting that the birds remember their exact location.