OBJECTIVE Controversy continues about the treatment of patients with a concomitant occlusive disease of the coronary and carotid arteries. Our operative strategy in these patients is to do simultaneous carotid endarterectomy and myocardial revascularization in conjunction with cardiopulmonary bypass with mild hypothermia. We report our experience with this kind of one-stage procedure and its retrospective long-term results. METHODS From February 1985 to September 1998, 340 patients underwent simultaneous carotid endarterectomy and myocardial revascularization. The average age of the patients was 65.3 years; 45.6% were neurologically symptomatic, and 44.4% had bilateral carotid stenosis. The indication for carotid endarterectomy was lumen diameter reduction of more than 75%, angiographic signs of thrombogenic endovascular morphology, or both. Carotid endarterectomy was performed in conjunction with cardiopulmonary bypass with mild hypothermia, hemodilution, systemic heparinization, and controlled hemodynamics under pulsatile perfusion for additional cerebral protection. RESULTS There were 16 perioperative neurologic complications (4.7%), 11 permanent deficits (3.2%), and 9 cardiac complications (2.6%). Early mortality was 2.6% (SE 0.8%): 2 patients had a stroke and 2 had a myocardial infarction. The 5-year survival was 78.9% (SE 2.6%), and freedom from ipsilateral stroke and cardiac event were 93.2% (SE 1.5%) and 87.5% (SE 2.1%), respectively. The predictor for early death was age over 70 years, and predictors for late death were age over 70 years, previous myocardial infarction, previous stroke, and bilateral carotid stenosis of greater than 90%. CONCLUSION On the basis of our long-term results, we believe that simultaneous carotid endarterectomy and myocardial revascularization in conjunction with cardiopulmonary bypass is a method safe enough to prefer its routine use with acceptable low operative risk and satisfactory long-term morbidity.