In order to investigate neural mechanisms by which the prefrontal cortex adaptively modifies its activities based on past experience, we examined whether or not sensory cortical projections to the medial prefrontal cortex support long-term potentiation (LTP) in rats. Monosynaptic projections from the secondary visual cortex, mediomedial area (V2MM) to the infralimbic cortex were confirmed by orthodromic as well as antidromic activation of single units. High-frequency stimulation (50 Hz, 2 s) induced LTP (approximately 45% increase over the baseline) in the V2MM projection to the infralimbic cortex. LTP induction in this pathway was completely blocked by an injection (i.p.) of CPP, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. LTP was also induced in the ventral hippocampal projection to the infralimbic cortex by the same high-frequency stimulation. The present results suggest that modification of synaptic weights of afferent sensory cortical projections is one mechanism underlying learning-induced changes in prefrontal cortical neural activities.