Molecular characteristics of four Japanese cases with KCNV2 retinopathy: Report of novel disease-causing variants
PURPOSE To provide an up to 14-year overview of the early ocular phenotype in siblings with a homozygous p.G461R mutation in the KCNV2 gene. METHODS Two brothers and their sister were followed-up clinically from ages 5 years, 4 years, and 2 months, respectively, including complete ophthalmological examinations. Goldmann visual fields, two-color-threshold (2CT) perimetry, color vision testing, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and Ganzfeld electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed according to age-related capabilities. Genetic analyses included whole genome linkage analysis, homozygosity mapping, and candidate gene sequencing. RESULTS All three siblings were homozygous for the p.G461R mutation. At 5 months, the younger brother had no nystagmus and Teller-acuity of 3.2 cyc/deg. At older age, all three presented nystagmus, increased light sensitivity, reduced color discrimination, and relative central scotomas. Visual acuities ranged from 20/200 to 20/70. The macula developed minor irregularities of the RPE, thinning in optical coherence tomography, and a ring of increased FAF. Scotopic (rod) sensitivity was reduced by 2 log and photopic sensitivity by 1 log in two-color-threshold perimetry. ERG responses were markedly delayed. Photopic amplitudes were severely reduced. Scotopic b-waves rose steeply with flash intensity, but for the standard flash supernormal amplitudes were only reached in the girl. CONCLUSIONS FAF was similar to that in cone-rod dystrophy. Although cone dysfunction was accompanied by rod dysfunction, and scotopic ERGs in patient 2 deteriorated, no patient demonstrated any unequivocal sign of rod degeneration. Grossly delayed b-waves with a steep response-versus-intensity relationship rather than supernormal amplitudes should remind clinicians of this specific condition.