A Framework for Identifying Selective Chemical Applications for IPM in Dryland Agriculture
The effects of the insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate) on non-target arthropods in winter wheat were studied throughout two successive seasons in 1998 and 1999. The study particularly focussed on the crop in the growing season after insecticide application (also winter wheat) for detection of potential long-term effects and for determination of the suitability of different sampling methods.The investigations were based on the assumption that arthropod immigration from surrounding areas is limited in large fields. For this reason a simple approach seemed to be feasible. Two plots of equal size (10 ha, adjusted to each other) were defined in a 100 ha field and designated control and treatment plots. Ten sampling points were established on each plot. The following monitoring methods were utilised: visual counting, sweep netting and pitfall trapping. In the first year of investigation, countings and catches were carried out 2 days prior to insecticide application and 2, 16, 30 and 44 days after application. In the next year, they were carried out 365 days and 384 days after insecticide application in the successive crop of winter wheat.At the time of the first sampling prior to insecticide application, the two plots showed significant differences with respect to arthropod density or activity, particularly in visual counting and to a minor degree to sweep netting and pitfall trapping. Lower densities or activities were observed in the plot reserved for treatment. Measures for mathematical equalisation of the results of population densities before pesticide treatment should be considered.After insecticide application, the densities or activities of non-target arthropods decreased, particularly in visual counting and sweep netting. After one year, these effects disappeared to a large extent. Several groups of arthropods reached even higher levels in the treated plot than in the untreated one. The pitfall traps revealed weak activity-decreasing effects in carabids and spiders in the treated plot, but the opposite tendency for staphylinids. Hence, it seems that the conditions in a large field are less homogeneous, and that smaller scale conditions can support processes of recovery in non-target populations.