Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity; Protective Supplements and Gender Differences
The protective effect of acetazolamide or sodium chloride loading on cisplatin nephrotoxicity was investigated in rats. After a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg kg-1 i.p.) kidney function was studied after 5, 28 and 84 days. Acetazolamide (75 mg kg-1 i.p.) was administered as a single dose prior (30 min) to the cisplatin injection. By the time of cisplatin administration, the rats were sodium depleted except the sodium-loaded group. Five days after the cisplatin administration all rats received a regular rat chow for the rest of the experiment. Cisplatin alone caused renal failure that could be observed for up to 12 weeks (ClCr 0.32 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.62 +/- 0.06 ml min-1 x 100 g BW-1) with polyuria (UVol 41.2 +/- 4.5 vs. 18.4 +/- 4.6 ml 24 h-1). Pretreatment with acetazolamide was the most protective manoeuvre tested. Five days after cisplatin, kidney function was significantly better than in rats treated with cisplatin alone (ClCr 0.21 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.03 +/- 0.01 ml min-1 x 100 g BW-1), after 28 days the only sign of nephrotoxicity was polyuria (UVol 28.9 +/- 3.7 vs. 19.0 +/- 2.6 ml 24 h-1) after 84 days no differences could be observed at all. Sodium chloride loading was less protective on cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Impaired renal function could still be observed after 12 weeks (ClCr 0.41 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.62 +/- 0.06 ml min-1 x 100 g BW-1) with no difference in comparison with the rats treated with cisplatin alone. However, since 12 rats died in the group having received cisplatin alone and only one rat in the high-salt group, sodium chloride loading is regarded as being advantageous over sodium depletion on cisplatin nephrotoxicity.