Long-term changes in forest composition and diversity following early logging (1919–1923) and the decline of American chestnut (Castanea dentata)

  title={Long-term changes in forest composition and diversity following early logging (1919–1923) and the decline of American chestnut (Castanea dentata)},
  author={Katherine J. Elliott and Wayne T. Swank},
  journal={Plant Ecology},
Chestnut blight fungus (Endothia parasitica [Murr.] P.J. And. & H.W. And.)) is a classic example of an invasive species, which severely damaged populations of its host, Castanea dentata, and had widespread and long-term impacts on eastern North American forests. Concurrently, forests were further disturbed by lumbering, which was common across the region from the mid 1800s to the early 1900s. In 1926, local infestations of chestnut blight were reported in the Coweeta Basin, Southern Appalachian… 
American chestnut (Castanea dentata) to northern red oak (Quercus rubra): forest dynamics of an old-growth forest in the Blue Ridge Mountains, USA
Quercus rubra has been a dominant species at Bluff Mountain for the past 300 years; however, data indicate that the forest will transition to support a much stronger Acer saccharum Marsh during the next 50 years, and conservation efforts and forest management in high-elevation Quercus spp.
Future species composition will affect forest water use after loss of eastern hemlock from southern Appalachian forests.
The effects of hemlock die-off and replacement with deciduous species will have a significant impact on the hydrologic flux of forest transpiration, especially in winter, and this long-term increase in forest E(t) may eventually reduce stream discharge, especially during the growing season.
Founder Placement and Gene Dispersal Affect Population Growth and Genetic Diversity in Restoration Plantings of American Chestnut
Efforts are underway to restore this former keystone species and prevent extinction, reestablishing its ecological and economic roles in its natural habitat and breeding of blight-resistant strains is being attempted.
Forest Regeneration Following Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairemaire) Enhances Mesophication in Eastern Hardwood Forests
Shift in understory vegetation indicate that Fraxinus mortality enhances the rate of succession to shade-tolerant species.
Disturbance history and stand dynamics in secondary and old-growth forests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA1
It was found that stands similar in disturbance regimes were also similar in species composition, which could help inform models to better predict how forests might respond to future climate.
Thirty Years of Compositional Change in an Old-Growth Temperate Forest: The Role of Topographic Gradients in Oak-Maple Dynamics
Overall, sitewide canopy succession is occurring slowly in the absence of major disturbance, and topography-driven environmental variation appears to have an important local-scale filtering effect on communities.
Remnant American Chestnut (Castanea dentata) Near the Historical Western Range Limit in Southwestern Tennessee
ABSTRACT The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once widespread in eastern North America and an ecologically important hardwood tree of deciduous forest communities prior to its
Quantifying the decline in transpiration of Tsuga Canadensis and predicting water budget implications of succession in southern Appalachian forests.
Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is declining throughout the eastern United States as a result of infestation of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). As a principal species in riparian cove
Environmental niche and demographic modeling of American chestnut near its southwestern range limit
It is found that suitable habitat associated with higher elevations and areas of high forest canopy cover occurs throughout much of the southwestern portion of the historical range and that populations of American chestnut in these areas are predicted to drastically decline over the next ∼100-200 years without conservation interventions to mitigate the negative consequences of chestnut blight.


Changes in a Former Chestnut-Dominated Forest after a Half Century of Succession
In 1932, E. Lucy Braun surveyed a chestnut-dominated forest on Salt Pond Mountain in southwestern Virginia. The vegetation of this same site was resampled during the summers of 1982 and 1983 to
Changes in Vegetation Structure and Diversity After Grass-to-Forest Succession in a Southern Appalachian Watershed
The severe disturbance increased the abundance of early successional woody species and of herbaceous genera that tolerate open habitats, such as Erichtites, Phytolacca, and Erigeron.
Vegetation Change in a Former Chestnut Stand on the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee during an 80-year Period (1921–2000)
A former chestnut stand on the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee was sampled in 1952/53, 1979, and 2000, and J. cinerea was an important replacement species, but no individuals are currently present.
The Present Composition of a Former Oak-Chestnut Forest in the Allegheny Mountains of Western Pennsylvania
A blighted and lumbered oak—chestnut forest in the Allegheny Mountains of western Pennsylvania was studied 50 years after elimination of the American chestnut, revealing a regeneration pattern not typical of previously studied chestnut sites.
Forest Communities and Patterns
The vegetation of the Coweeta Basin is traditionally included in the oak-chestnut association (Braun 1972). However, since chestnut (Castanea dentata) has been lost as a dominant due to the chestnut
Distribution and Persistence of American Chestnut Sprouts, Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh., in Northeastern Ohio Woodlands
Comparisons of sprouting rates versus death rates over a three year period indicated a 30% increase in the number of chestnut stems giving the appearance of a growing population, succession toward beech-maple forests was evident at all three sites as is the case in many forested areas of this region.
Early forest regeneration in southern Appalachian hardwood forests is dominated by the woody nitrogen-fixing legume, black locust, which is an early successional mechanism that releases cpdominant species such as Liriodendron tulipifera and creates canopy gaps favourable for growth of longer-lived individuals.
Decline of understory American chestnut (Castaneadentata) in a southern Appalachian forest
Formerly numerous understory stems of American chestnut showed a precipitous decline in a 3-ha stem-mapped permanent plot in southwestern Virginia, United States, showing the probability of stem death appears to have been random in space.