BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Surgery for prostate cancer is associated with adverse effects. We studied long-term risk of adverse effects after retropubic (RRP) and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). METHODS In the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden, men who had undergone radical prostatectomy (RP) between 2004 and 2014 were identified. Diagnoses and procedures indicating adverse postoperative effects were retrieved from the National Patient Register. Relative risk (RR) of adverse effects after RARP versus RRP was calculated in multivariable analyses adjusting for year of surgery, hospital surgical volume, T stage, Gleason grade, PSA level at diagnosis, patient age, comorbidity, and educational level. RESULTS A total of 11 212 men underwent RRP and 8500 RARP. Risk of anastomotic stricture was lower after RARP than RRP, RR for diagnoses 0.51 (95%CI = 0.42-0.63) and RR for procedures 0.46 (95%CI = 0.38-0.55). Risk of inguinal hernia was similar after RARP and RRP but risk of incisional hernia was higher after RARP, RR for diagnoses 1.48 (95%CI = 1.01-2.16), and RR for procedures 1.52 (95%CI = 1.02-2.26). CONCLUSIONS The postoperative risk profile for RARP and RRP was quite similar. However, risk of anastomotic stricture was lower and risk of incisional hernia higher after RARP.