Urinary biomarkers in patients with detrusor underactivity with and without bladder function recovery
Increase in bladder mucosal permeability can be reproduced by intravesical administration of protamine sulfate (PS); however, the influence of PS once administered into the bladder disappears within several days. We developed a chronic animal model of urothelial injury using PS. Insertion of a polyethylene catheter through the bladder dome was performed in female Wistar rats. The other end of the catheter was connected to an osmotic pump for continuous delivery of PS or vehicle for 2 wk. Urinary frequency (UF) and voided volume (VV) were measured in the metabolic cage. The fifth group of rats received a high dose of PS (10 mg/ml) for 2 wk and were followed for a further 2 wk without PS. The sixth group received a high dose of PS for 2 wk and loxoprofen (0.1 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) for 4 wk. UF was increased, and VV was reduced in rats treated with a high dose of PS but not changed in rats treated with a vehicle or a low dose of PS (1 mg/ml). UF was further increased in the fifth group, while unchanged in the sixth group. Histological sections in rats treated with a high dose of PS demonstrated a loss of the upper layer of urothelial cells and an increased number of mast cells. PGE2 level in the bladder was significantly elevated in the fifth group. These results indicate that chronic urotherial injury leads to an increase in UF and a decrease in VV. Increased PGE2 level in the bladder is likely to be associated with long-lasting storage dysfunction.