Long-distance stone transport and pigment use in the earliest Middle Stone Age

@article{Brooks2018LongdistanceST,
  title={Long-distance stone transport and pigment use in the earliest Middle Stone Age},
  author={Alison S Brooks and John E. Yellen and Richard Potts and Anna K. Behrensmeyer and Alan L. Deino and David E Leslie and Stanley H. Ambrose and Jeffrey R. Ferguson and Francesco d’Errico and Andrew M. Zipkin and Scott Whittaker and Jeffrey E. Post and Elizabeth G. Veatch and Kimberly Foecke and Jennifer B Clark},
  journal={Science},
  year={2018},
  volume={360},
  pages={90 - 94}
}
The Middle Stone Age in Africa The Olorgesailie basin in the southern Kenya rift valley contains sediments dating back to 1.2 million years ago, preserving a long archaeological record of human activity and environmental conditions. Three papers present the oldest East African evidence of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) and elucidate the system of technology and behavior associated with the origin of Homo sapiens. Potts et al. present evidence for the demise of Acheulean technology that preceded the… 
Environmental dynamics during the onset of the Middle Stone Age in eastern Africa
TLDR
Aspects of Acheulean technology in this region imply that, as early as 615,000 years ago, greater stone material selectivity and wider resource procurement coincided with an increased pace of land-lake fluctuation, potentially anticipating the adaptability of MSA hominins.
Chronology of the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age transition in eastern Africa
TLDR
The age of late Acheulean tool assemblages was determined from 615,000 to 499,000 years ago, after which a large technological and faunal transition occurred, with a definitive MSA lacking AcheULEan elements beginning most likely by ~320,000 Years ago, but at least by 305,000years ago, establishing the oldest repository of MSA artifacts in eastern Africa.
Late Middle Stone Age Behavior and Environments at Chaminade I (Karonga, Malawi)
The African Middle Stone Age (MSA, typical range ~ 320–30 ka) has been the subject of intense research interest in recent decades as a culture-chronological Unit associated with the emergence and
Middle Stone Age foragers resided in high elevations of the glaciated Bale Mountains, Ethiopia
TLDR
The earliest evidence of a prehistoric high-altitude residential site located in Africa’s largest alpine ecosystem, the repeated occupation of Fincha Habera rock shelter is dated to 47 to 31 thousand years ago, playing a pivotal role in facilitating the occupation of this site by Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers.
Explanations of variability in Middle Stone Age stone tool assemblage composition and raw material use in Eastern Africa
The Middle Stone Age (MSA) corresponds to a critical phase in human evolution, overlapping with the earliest emergence of Homo sapiens as well as the expansions of these populations across and beyond
The Early Middle Stone Age in South Africa
The Early Middle Stone Age (EMSA) from South Africa occurred, broadly, between 300,000 and 130,000 years ago. This is a crucial phase in the history of Homo sapiens, as genetic and fossil evidence
Earliest known human burial in Africa.
TLDR
The morphological assessment of the partial skeleton is consistent with its assignment to Homo sapiens, although the preservation of some primitive features in the dentition supports increasing evidence for non-gradual assembly of modern traits during the emergence of the authors' species.
Continuity of the Middle Stone Age into the Holocene
TLDR
Two new sites in Senegal are reported that date the end of the MSA to around 11 ka, the youngest yet documented MSA in Africa, and highlight significant spatial and temporal cultural variability in the African Late Pleistocene.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 81 REFERENCES
Environmental dynamics during the onset of the Middle Stone Age in eastern Africa
TLDR
Aspects of Acheulean technology in this region imply that, as early as 615,000 years ago, greater stone material selectivity and wider resource procurement coincided with an increased pace of land-lake fluctuation, potentially anticipating the adaptability of MSA hominins.
Chronology of the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age transition in eastern Africa
TLDR
The age of late Acheulean tool assemblages was determined from 615,000 to 499,000 years ago, after which a large technological and faunal transition occurred, with a definitive MSA lacking AcheULEan elements beginning most likely by ~320,000 Years ago, but at least by 305,000years ago, establishing the oldest repository of MSA artifacts in eastern Africa.
The Archaeology of Aduma Middle Stone Age Sites in the Awash Valley, Ethiopia
The Aduma region of the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia, contains multiple surface and in situ Middle Stone Age (MSA) occurrences that include lithics and spatially associated faunal and hominid
Palaeoenvironments and Cultural Sequence of the Florisbad Middle Stone Age Hominid Site, South Africa
Abstract Florisbad, an open-air spring site with 7 m of strata, has yielded the type assemblage of Middle Stone Age (MSA) fauna, the cranium of an archaic hominid in 1932 and an extensive sequence of
Variability in the Middle Stone Age of Eastern Africa
Eastern Africa is an important area to study early populations of Homo sapiens because subsets of those populations likely dispersed to Eurasia and subsequently throughout the globe during the Upper
The age of the hominin fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and the origins of the Middle Stone Age
TLDR
The ages of fire-heated flint artefacts obtained from new excavations at the Middle Stone Age site of Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, which are directly associated with newly discovered remains of H. sapiens are reported, suggest a larger scale, potentially pan-African, origin for both.
VARIETIES AND SOURCES OF ARTEFACTUAL OBSIDIAN IN THE MIDDLE STONE AGE OF THE MIDDLE AWASH, ETHIOPIA*
Recent investigation of the geochemical provenance of obsidian artefacts from spatially and temporally variable archaeological sites in Ethiopia has shown the diversity of geological sources and
...
...