Long-distance, graft-transmissible action of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T protein to promote flowering.

@article{Notaguchi2008LongdistanceGA,
  title={Long-distance, graft-transmissible action of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T protein to promote flowering.},
  author={Michitaka Notaguchi and Mitsutomo Abe and T. Kimura and Yasufumi Daimon and Toshinori Kobayashi and Ayako Yamaguchi and Yuki Tomita and Koji Dohi and Masashi Mori and Takashi Araki},
  journal={Plant \& cell physiology},
  year={2008},
  volume={49 11},
  pages={
          1645-58
        }
}
Day length perceived by a leaf is a major environmental factor that controls the timing of flowering. It has been believed that a mobile, long-distance signal called florigen is produced in the leaf under inductive day length conditions, and is transported to the shoot apex where it triggers floral morphogenesis. Grafting experiments have shown that florigen is transmissible from a donor plant that has been subjected to inductive day length to an uninduced recipient plant. However, the nature… 

Graft-transmissible action of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T protein to promote flowering

TLDR
This work showed that the FT activity, either from overexpressing or inducible transgenes or from the endogenous gene, to promote flowering is transmissible through a graft junction, and that an FT protein with a T7 tag (FT-T7) is transported from a donor scion to the apical region of recipient stock plants and becomes detectable within a short period of 24–48 h.

NaKR1 regulates long-distance movement of FLOWERING LOCUS T in Arabidopsis

TLDR
It is shown that a heavy-metal-associated (HMA) domain-containing protein, SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1), is activated by CONSTANS (CO) under long-day conditions and regulates long-distance movement of FT in Arabidopsis.

In search for maize florigen

TLDR
In search for a maize FT-like floral activator(s), seven Zea mays CENTRORADIALIS (ZCN) genes encoding FT homologous proteins were studied and ZCN8 stood out as the only ZCN having the requisite characteristics for possessing florigenic activity.

The coincidence of critical day length recognition for florigen gene expression and floral transition under long-day conditions in rice.

TLDR
The complex transcriptional regulation of florigen genes and the resulting precise control over flowering time provides rice with the adaptability required for a crop species of increasing global importance.

Long-distance regulation of flowering time.

  • C. Turnbull
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of experimental botany
  • 2011
TLDR
There is increasing evidence that FT does not act purely to switch on flowering, but in addition, has broader roles in seasonal developmental switches such as bud dormancy and tuberization, and in the regulation of meristem determinacy and compound leaf development.

FE, a phloem-specific Myb-related protein, promotes flowering through transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T and FLOWERING LOCUS T INTERACTING PROTEIN 1.

In many flowering plants, the transition to flowering is primarily affected by seasonal changes in day length (photoperiod). An inductive photoperiod promotes flowering via synthesis of a floral

Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1

TLDR
The data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth.

FT and florigen long-distance flowering control in plants.

The flowering hormone florigen functions as a general systemic regulator of growth and termination

TLDR
Local balances between SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT), the tomato precursor of florigen, and SELF-PRUNING (SP), a potent SFT-dependent SFT inhibitor as prime targets of mobile florige are identified, suggesting that the SFT/SP regulatory hierarchy is a recent evolutionary innovation unique to flowering plants.

Phloem long-distance delivery of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) to the apex.

TLDR
A model is presented to account for the mechanism by which FT/FTL2 enters thephloem translocation stream and subsequently exits the phloem and enters the apical tissue, where it initiates the vegetative to floral transition.
...

References

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FT Protein Acts as a Long-Range Signal in Arabidopsis

CONSTANS acts in the phloem to regulate a systemic signal that induces photoperiodic flowering of Arabidopsis

TLDR
It is proposed that, partly through the activation of FT, CO regulates the synthesis or transport of a systemic flowering signal, thereby positioning this signal within the established hierarchy of regulatory proteins that controls flowering.

The tomato FT ortholog triggers systemic signals that regulate growth and flowering and substitute for diverse environmental stimuli.

TLDR
It is shown that SFT (SINGLE-FLOWER TRUSS), the tomato ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), induces flowering in day-neutral tomato and tobacco plants and is encoded by SFT.

FLOWERING LOCUS T Protein May Act as the Long-Distance Florigenic Signal in the Cucurbits[W]

TLDR
Testing whether long-distance movement of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) mRNA or FT is required for floral induction showed consistent with FT functioning as a component of the florigenic signaling system in the cucurbits.

FT Protein Movement Contributes to Long-Distance Signaling in Floral Induction of Arabidopsis

TLDR
It is concluded that FT protein acts as a long-distance signal that induces Arabidopsis flowering, and evidence that FT does not activate an intermediate messenger in leaves is provided.

The Flowering Integrator FT Regulates SEPALLATA3 and FRUITFULL Accumulation in Arabidopsis Leavesw⃞

TLDR
It is proposed that FT functions through partner-dependent transcriptional activation of these and as-yet-unknown genes and that this occurs at several sites and that organ fate may depend on both degree of activation and the developmental stage reached by the organ before activation occurs.

TERMINAL FLOWER2, an Arabidopsis Homolog of HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1, Counteracts the Activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T by CONSTANS in the Vascular Tissues of Leaves to Regulate Flowering Time Article, publication date, and citation information can be found at www.plantcell.org/cgi/doi/10.1105/tpc.016

TLDR
It is shown that T FL2, CO, and FT are expressed together in leaf vascular tissues and that TFL2 represses FT expression continuously throughout development, resulting in daylength-independent early flowering.

FD, a bZIP Protein Mediating Signals from the Floral Pathway Integrator FT at the Shoot Apex

FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is a conserved promoter of flowering that acts downstream of various regulatory pathways, including one that mediates photoperiodic induction through CONSTANS (CO), and is

Hd3a Protein Is a Mobile Flowering Signal in Rice

TLDR
It is shown that the protein encoded by Hd3a, a rice ortholog of FT, moves from the leaf to the shoot apical meristem and induces flowering in rice, suggesting that the Hd 3a protein may be the rice florigen.