Long-Term Sensitization of a Defensive Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia

  title={Long-Term Sensitization of a Defensive Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia},
  author={H. Pinsker and W. Hening and T. Carew and E. Kandel},
  pages={1039 - 1042}
When a weak tactile stimulus is applied to the siphon of Aplysia californica, the animal withdraws the siphon between the parapodia. This defensive withdrawal reflex can be facilitated (sensitized) if the animal is previously given 4 days of training, consisting of four brief noxious stimuli each day. The sensitization of this reflex can last for up to 3 weeks after training and is mediated by the abdominal ganglion which also mediates long-term habituation. This preparation may provide a… Expand
Site-specific sensitization of defensive reflexes in Aplysia: a simple model of long-term hyperalgesia
  • E. Walters
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1987
The findings suggest that site-specific sensitization reflects, at least in part, a central, long-term memory of injury that may be phylogenetically widespread, and functionally similar to aspects of hyperalgesia. Expand
A cellular mechanism of classical conditioning in Aplysia.
  • R. Hawkins
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1984
Results indicate that a mechanism of classical conditioning of the withdrawal reflex is an elaboration of the mechanism underlying sensitization, and the mechanisms of higher-order features of learning, such as the effect of contingency, may be built from combinations of the molecular mechanisms of these simple forms of learning. Expand
Classical conditioning in a simple withdrawal reflex in Aplysia californica
  • T. Carew, E. Walters, E. Kandel
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1981
The ability of Aplysia and other gastropod molluscs to exhibit complex behaviors that can be modified by associative learning has encouraged us to search for an elementary behavior controlled by aExpand
Rapid and persistent suppression of feeding behavior induced by sensitization training in Aplysia.
The use of multiple training protocols revealed that the time course of the suppression of feeding was analogous to that of sensitization, and suggested that noxious stimuli may produce concurrent changes in neural circuits controlling both defensive and nondefensive behaviors. Expand
Prolonged Habituation of the Gill-Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia Depends on Protein Synthesis, Protein Phosphatase Activity, and Postsynaptic Glutamate Receptors
The results indicate that postsynaptic mechanisms, possibly including modulation of glutamate receptor function, play a major, heretofore unsuspected, role in habituation in Aplysia. Expand
Stimulus-response relations and stability of mechanoreceptor and motor neurons mediating defensive gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia.
Study of the response properties of the sensory and motor neurons of the reflex during repeated stimulation at rates that produce habituation and the stability of the motor responses is described. Expand
A behavioral analysis of habituation and sensitization of shortening in the semi-intact leech
  • N. Boulis, C. Sahley
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1988
It is demonstrated that the shortening reflex of the semi-intact animal also displays habituation, dishabituation, and sensitization, as well as in the intact animal. Expand
Site Specificity of Short-Term and Long-Term Habituation in the Tail-Elicited Siphon Withdrawal Reflex of Aplysia
Using the tail-elicited siphon withdrawal reflex of Aplysia, it is found that both short-term and long-term habituation can be restricted laterally, such that habituation produced by stimulation of one side of the tail does not generalize to the other side. Expand
Dynamic regulation of the siphon withdrawal reflex of Aplysia californica in response to changes in the ambient tactile environment.
Results indicate that the Aplysia siphon withdrawal reflex is dynamically regulated on the basis of variations in external conditions, so that responsiveness is matched to the state of the environment. Expand
Habituation of reflexes in Aplysia: contribution of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
Repeated electrical stimulation of two efferent nerves to the gill, after removal of the parietovisceral ganglion, resulted in habituation of withdrawal movements, which shows that the terminals of theganglion neurons in the gills are a site of habituation. Expand


Introduction to Modern Behaviorism (Freeman
  • San Francisco,
  • 1970
For an example of the use of the term sensitization to describe the facilitation of a response to a single stimulus when that stimulus is repeated
  • Physiol. Rev
  • 1968
For discussions of sensitization (or nonspecific alpha conditioning) see G. A
    Nonparametric statistics w,ere used to compare scores either within a group (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signedranks test), or between groups
      Using a restrained preparation, we attempted to relate sensitization of siphon withdrawal to sensitization of gill withdrawal (4)