Long-Term Health Effects of Neutering Dogs: Comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers

@article{Hart2014LongTermHE,
  title={Long-Term Health Effects of Neutering Dogs: Comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers},
  author={Benjamin L Hart and Lynette A Hart (Geyer) and Abigail P. Thigpen and Neil H. Willits},
  journal={PLoS ONE},
  year={2014},
  volume={9}
}
Our recent study on the effects of neutering (including spaying) in Golden Retrievers in markedly increasing the incidence of two joint disorders and three cancers prompted this study and a comparison of Golden and Labrador Retrievers. Veterinary hospital records were examined over a 13-year period for the effects of neutering during specified age ranges: before 6 mo., and during 6–11 mo., year 1 or years 2 through 8. The joint disorders examined were hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament… 
Assisting Decision-Making on Age of Neutering for 35 Breeds of Dogs: Associated Joint Disorders, Cancers, and Urinary Incontinence
Neutering (including spaying) of male and female dogs in the first year after birth has become routine in the U.S. and much of Europe, but recent research reveals that for some dog breeds, neutering
Neutering of German Shepherd Dogs: associated joint disorders, cancers and urinary incontinence
TLDR
Findings, profiling the increase in joint disorders associated with early neutering, should help guide the timing of neutering for this breed.
Association of cancer-related mortality, age and gonadectomy in golden retriever dogs at a veterinary academic center (1989-2016)
TLDR
Overall golden retriever dogs have a substantial risk of cancer related mortality in a referral population and age appears to have a larger effect on cancer relatedortality than reproductive status.
Assisting Decision-Making on Age of Neutering for Mixed Breed Dogs of Five Weight Categories: Associated Joint Disorders and Cancers
TLDR
Examining a sample of mixed breed dogs of five weight categories found that there are major breed differences with small-dog breeds generally showing little vulnerability to neutering compared with breeds of larger body size, and these findings on purebreds raise questions for dog owners and veterinarians about mixed-breed dogs.
Correlation of neuter status and expression of heritable disorders
TLDR
In this retrospective study, several conditions showed an increased risk associated with neutering whereas other conditions were less likely to be expressed in neutered dogs.
[Neutering of female dogs - old and new insights into Pros and Cons].
TLDR
It can be suggested, that at this time, a certain reduction of the risk of mammary neoplasia can be achieved with only a moderate potential for undesired side effects.
Age at gonadectomy and risk of overweight/obesity and orthopedic injury in a cohort of Golden Retrievers
TLDR
The data suggest that Gonadectomy at any age is a risk factor for overweight or obesity, but delaying gonadectomy until dogs are at least 6–12 months of age may help to decrease the risk for orthopedic injury.
Effects of Long-Term Selection in the Border Collie Dog Breed: Inbreeding Purge of Canine Hip and Elbow Dysplasia
TLDR
The main conclusion was that over-representation of homozygous individuals may have a positive effect on hip and elbow conformation, and alleles that had been identical by descent for the first time (F_KAL_NEW) had a negative effect on both traits.
Desexing Dogs: A Review of the Current Literature
TLDR
The evidence for a beneficial effect of desexing is stronger in female than in male dogs; however, there is significant variation between breeds and sexes, and more research is needed to further elucidate these differences.
Prevalence of Reproductive Disorders including Mammary Tumors and Associated Mortality in Female Dogs
TLDR
Spayed (ES + LS) female dogs had a 4-fold decreased risk of dying from mammary cancer compared to intact females and in this low-sterilization rate population, MTs developed in 35.1% of female dogs over their lifetime and was the cause of death in half of them.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 36 REFERENCES
Neutering Dogs: Effects on Joint Disorders and Cancers in Golden Retrievers
TLDR
The objective was to examine the variables of gender and age at the time of neutering versus leaving dogs gonadally intact, on all diseases occurring with sufficient frequency for statistical analyses, and the Golden Retriever was chosen for this study.
Epidemiology of surgical castration of dogs and cats in the United States.
TLDR
Many young adult (1- to < 4-year-old) dogs were uncastrated, signaling a need to promote earlier castration, and additional research is needed to evaluate the potential impact of wellness programs on an owner's decision to have his or her pet castrated.
Prevalence of and risk factors for hip dysplasia and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency in dogs.
TLDR
Results suggested that sex, age, and breed were risk factors for HD, CCLD, or both in dogs and that prevalences of HD and CclD have increased over time.
The effect of neutering on the risk of mammary tumours in dogs--a systematic review.
TLDR
The evidence that neutering reduces the risk of mammary neoplasia, and the evidence that age at neutering has an effect, are judged to be weak and are not a sound basis for firm recommendations.
Breed, sex, and body weight as risk factors for rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament in young dogs.
TLDR
Several large breeds of dogs are predisposed to rupture of the CCL at a young age, and body weights of dogs with ruptured CCL were significantly greater than those of control dogs.
Cutaneous MCTs: associations with spay/neuter status, breed, body size, and phylogenetic cluster.
TLDR
Certain breeds are known to be overrepresented among mast cell tumor (MCT) patients, but other risk factors have not been evaluated, and increased risk for MCT development was found in spayed females and breeds classified as large or giant.
Gonadectomy in immature dogs: effects on skeletal, physical, and behavioral development.
TLDR
It was concluded that with respect to skeletal, physical, and behavioral development, the effect of neutering pups at 7 weeks old was similar to that of neutered pups in the sexually intact dogs at 7 months old.
Effect of gonadectomy on subsequent development of age-related cognitive impairment in dogs.
  • B. Hart
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • 2001
TLDR
Results suggest that the presence of circulating testosterone in aging sexually intact male dogs may slow the progression of cognitive impairment, at least among dogs that already have signs of mild impairment.
Survey of veterinary practice policies and opinions on neutering dogs
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2008 to obtain information on the advice veterinary practices currently give to their clients and the opinions of veterinary surgeons regarding neutering of
Evaluation of the risk and age of onset of cancer and behavioral disorders in gonadectomized Vizslas.
TLDR
The younger the age at gonadectomy, the earlier the mean age at diagnosis of mast cell cancer, cancers other than mast cell, hemangiosarcoma, lymphoma, all cancers combined, a behavioral disorder, or fear of storms.
...
...