Long-Term Effects of Acid Rain: Response and Recovery of a Forest Ecosystem

  title={Long-Term Effects of Acid Rain: Response and Recovery of a Forest Ecosystem},
  author={Gene E. Likens and Charles T. Driscoll and Donald C. Buso},
  pages={244 - 246}
Long-term data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, suggest that although changes in stream pH have been relatively small, large quantities of calcium and magnesium have been lost from the soil complex and exported by drainage water because of inputs of acid rain and declines in atmospheric deposition of base cations. As a result, the recovery of soil and streamwater chemistry in response to any decreases in acid deposition will be delayed significantly. 
Long-term responses in soil solution and stream-water chemistry at Hubbard Brook after experimental addition of wollastonite
Environmental context Calcium silicate was added to a forest watershed in New Hampshire, USA, to accelerate its recovery from acid rain. The acid–base status of soil and stream quality improved over
Long-term Nitrogen Dynamics in a Temperate Forest Ecosystem
Environmental changes caused by humans are occurring at an accelerating rate throughout the world. Such human-accelerated environmental changes (Likens 1991) include complicated interactions among
The long-term effects of disturbance on nitrogen cycling and loss in the White Mountains, New Hampshire
Theories of nitrogen retention suggest that N cycling and loss should increase with ecosystem successional age and with chronic N deposition over time (N saturation). These factors both affect
Response of soil fertility to 25 years of experimental acidification in a temperate hardwood forest.
Findings confirm that (NH4 )2 SO4 treatments have lowered the pH, enhanced levels of exchangeable Al3+ , and increased stream-water exports of NO3 - and base cations-a process that further acidifies soil, which may contribute to the reduced growth and competitiveness of some hardwood species at the acidified site.
Recovery from chronic and snowmelt acidification: Long‐term trends in stream and soil water chemistry at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA
Atmospheric acid deposition of sulfate and nitrate has declined markedly in the northeastern United States due to emissions controls. We investigated long‐term trends in soil water (1984–2011) and
Long-term trends in soil solution and stream water chemistry at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: relationship with landscape position
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Variation in chemistry of stream water and bulk deposition across the Hubbard Brook Valley, New Hampshire, USA
Chemistry and volume of precipitation and stream water have been measured in south-facing watersheds of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), continuously for 37 years. These long-term data
Divergent responses of soil buffering capacity to long-term N deposition in three typical tropical forests with different land-use history.
It is suggested that N-rich primary forests may be more sensitive to external N inputs than others with low N status, and should be given more attention under global changes in the future, because lack of nutrient cations is irreversible.
Acidic deposition and sustainable forest management in the central Appalachians, USA


Changes in soil ph over a 50-year period under different forest canopies in SW Sweden
Reinvestigation of soil profiles, down to 70 cm depth in mineral soil, sampled for measurements in 1927 revealed a general decrease in pH for spruce and hardwood stands with 0.3 to 0.9 units. The
The biogeochemistry of potassium at Hubbard Brook
A synthesis of the biogeochemistry of K was conducted during 1963–1992 in the reference and human-manipulated watershed-ecosystems of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH. Results showed
Long-term depletion of calcium and other nutrients in eastern US forests
Both harvest removal and leaching losses can deplete nutrient capital in forests, but their combined long-term effects have not been assessed previously. We estimated changes in total soil and
Timing, magnitude, and impact of acidic deposition on sensitive forest sites
Adverse effects of acidic deposition on forest health are most likely to occur in forests which develop a thick raw or “mor” humus layer in which the effective cation exchange capacity is highly
Determination of soil exchangeable-cation loss and weathering rates using Sr isotopes
To assess the response of forests to a changing chemical environment, a means is needed for separating the total cation export from the watershed into a component derived from mineral weathering
Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem
A new mechanism for calcium loss in forest-floor soils
CALCIUM is the fifth most abundant element in trees, and is an essential component for wood formation and the maintenance of cell walls. Depletion of Ca from the rooting zone can result in
Quantification of changes in lakewater chemistry in response to acidic deposition
DESPITE intensive research, regional changes in lakewater chemistry in response to acidic deposition have not been adequately quantified. Palaeolimnology offers an independent means of testing the
Streams in the New Jersey Pinelands directly reflect changes in atmospheric deposition chemistry.
Mesure des concentrations en sulfate, nitrate et ammoniac dans des cours d'eau du New Jersey de 1970 a 1972 et de 1984 a 1988
Seasonal and long-term temporal patterns in the chemistry of Adirondack lakes
There is considerable interest in the recovery of surface waters from acidification by acidic deposition. The Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) program was established in 1982 to evaluate