Long Short-Term Memory

@article{Hochreiter1997LongSM,
  title={Long Short-Term Memory},
  author={Sepp Hochreiter and J{\"u}rgen Schmidhuber},
  journal={Neural Computation},
  year={1997},
  volume={9},
  pages={1735-1780}
}
Learning to store information over extended time intervals by recurrent backpropagation takes a very long time, mostly because of insufficient, decaying error backflow. We briefly review Hochreiter's (1991) analysis of this problem, then address it by introducing a novel, efficient, gradient based method called long short-term memory (LSTM). Truncating the gradient where this does not do harm, LSTM can learn to bridge minimal time lags in excess of 1000 discrete-time steps by enforcing constant… CONTINUE READING
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