Long–Term Recall Memory: Behavioral and Neuro–Developmental Changes in the First 2 Years of Life

  title={Long–Term Recall Memory: Behavioral and Neuro–Developmental Changes in the First 2 Years of Life},
  author={Patricia J. Bauer},
  journal={Current Directions in Psychological Science},
  pages={137 - 141}
  • P. Bauer
  • Published 1 August 2002
  • Psychology
  • Current Directions in Psychological Science
Until not long ago, psychologists conceptually and methodologically linked the capacity for recall of the past to developments in language. With the advent of a nonverbal measure of recall, this association has been challenged. It now is apparent that the capacity for long–term recall emerges well before the verbal ability to describe past experiences. Long–term recall is newly (or recently) emergent late in the 1st year of life; over the 2nd year, it consolidates and becomes reliable. The… 

Figures from this paper

Developments in Long-Term Explicit Memory Late in the First Year of Life

Coincident with developments in the temporal-cortical explicit memory network, long-term recall abilities are newly emergent late in the first year of human life. We recorded event-related potentials

Electrophysiological Indexes of Encoding and Behavioral Indexes of Recall: Examining Relations and Developmental Change Late in the First Year of Life

This reasearch combines electrophysiological (event-related potential [ERP]) and behavioral (deferred imitation) measures of encoding and recall, respectively, in an examination of age-related changes in and relations between encode and recall during this time.

Developments in Declarative Memory

  • P. Bauer
  • Psychology
    Psychological science
  • 2005
Patterns of performance across test trials and in relearning implicate a decline in susceptibility to storage failure as the primary source of the observed developmental trend.

Recall in Infancy

Relations between developments in neural structures and changes in memory in infancy are a relatively recent focus of research. Greater knowledge about brain development, as well as methodological

Memory development

Memory and its development are multifaceted. Different forms of long-term memory—non-declarative and declarative—have different developmental courses. Some types of non-declarative memory are

The structure of memory in infants and toddlers: an SEM study with full-terms and preterms.

The finding that prematurity, which entails risk of hippocampal compromise, affected recollection, but not familiarity, accords well with adult findings that hippocampal damage selectively affects recollection.

Recall memory in children with Down syndrome and typically developing peers matched on developmental age.

It is suggested that children with DS may have difficulty with mnemonic processes associated with consolidation/storage and/or retrieval processes relative to TD children.



Parameters of remembering and forgetting in the transition from infancy to early childhood.

Age-related effects were particularly apparent on children's ordered recall, and across the entire age range, the children were similarly affected by the variables of sequence type, opportunity for imitation, and verbal reminding.

What is remembered about early childhood events?

Neuroanatomy of memory.

Three important developments have occurred in the area of memory during the past decade, including the establishment of an animal model of human amnesia in the monkey and the recognition that there is more than one kind of memory.

Assumptions of infantile amnesia: are there differences between early and later memories?

Results indicated few objective differences between the early and later memories of women and men and their implications for theories as to the source of infantile amnesia are discussed.

The development of memory in childhood

Development of memory in infancy, C. Rovee-Collier neurological factors in memory development, C. Nelson development of memory in early childhood, P. Bauer development of declarative and procedural

When the event is more than the sum of its parts: 9-month-olds' long-term ordered recall.

It is demonstrated that, as a group, 9-month-olds are able to recall target actions after delays of five weeks, however, after this long delay, only 45% of the infants recalled the temporal order of the events, as well as the individual actions in them.

Reexposure breeds recall: effects of experience on 9-month-olds' ordered recall.

On the basis of three experiences, 9-month-olds recall specific events after one month, and presumably as a function of reexposure after one week, infants recalled the individual actions of the events one month later.

Scripts and episodes: The development of event memory

This article reviews recent research on how children organize general script knowledge and memories of specific episodes in memory. First, we discuss developmental issues concerning how children

The deferred imitation task as a nonverbal measure of declarative memory.

The findings suggest that deferred imitation is dependent on the brain structures essential for declarative memory that are damaged in amnesia, and they support the view that infants who imitate actions after long delays have an early capacity for long-term declaratives memory.