Long‐, intermediate‐ and short‐acting benzodiazepine effects on human sleep EEG spectra

  title={Long‐, intermediate‐ and short‐acting benzodiazepine effects on human sleep EEG spectra},
  author={Xin Tan and Sunao Uchida and Masato Matsuura and Kyoko Nishihara and Takuya Kojima},
  journal={Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences},
Abstract The effects of 10 mg haloxazolam (HAX), 4 mg flunitrazepam (FNZ), and 0.5 mg triazolam (TRI), each administered for seven consecutive nights were studied in the sleep electroencephalograms (EEG) of 17 (six HAX, five FNZ and six TRI) healthy male student volunteers. Recordings of C3–A1 EEG data from one baseline night, three drug nights (first, fourth and seventh) and two withdrawal nights (second and fourth) were analyzed using a fast Fourier transformation method. All three drugs… 

REM Sleep EEG Instability in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Clonazepam Effects

The REM sleep EEG structure changes found in this study disclose subtle but significant alterations in the cortical electrophysiology of RBD that might represent the early expression of the supposed neurodegenerative processes already taking place at this stage of the disease and might be the target of better and effective future therapeutic strategies for this condition.

Zolpidem and triazolam do not affect the nocturnal sleep-induced memory improvement

The hypnotics tested did not interfere with the nocturnal sleep-induced improvement of memory and neither zolpidem nor triazolam affected the enhanced nonword recall observed after sleep.

Comparative Action of Sedative Hypnotics on Neurophysiology of Sleep

In this review effort has been made in elaborating the various sleep EEG pattern changes, resulting with the use of different groups of sedative hypnotic drugs with a brief note on their respective mechanism of action and pharmacological properties.


The analysis of hypnotic's effect from a perspective of homeostatic, circadian, ultradian and microstructural regulation of sleep finds that hypnotic sedatives decrease arousal instability, and zolpidem has the strongest effects in micro structural terms.

Sleep in the intensive care unit.

Current Awareness in Human Psychopharmacology

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Effect of benzodiazepine hypnotics on all-night sleep EEG spectra.

The results demonstrate that benzodiazepine hypnotics induce specific changes in the EEG spectra which reflect the immediate and residual drug effects more sensitively than conventional sleep scores.

Effect of a short-acting benzodiazepine on brain electrical activity during sleep.

Differentiating the effects of three benzodiazepines on non-REM sleep EEG spectra. A neural-network pattern classification analysis.

Of the three benzodiazepines studied, flurazepam had the largest effect and quazepAM had the most stable time course and EEG differences may prove to be more clinically useful markers than the usual measurement of plasma levels, and may be used to guide the therapy of sleep disorders.

Residual effects of repeated administration of triazolam and nitrazepam in healthy volunteers.

Short-acting hypnotics may have an advantage over long- acting hypnotics in terms of producing less residual sedative effects during chronic treatment, and there was no evidence of drug accumulation after triazolam administration.

Effect of flunitrazepam on sleep and memory

The results of this study suggest that impairments in memory result from the dose of FNZ, and that there is a possibility of a relationship between memory disturbance and REM sleep suppression caused by this benzodiazepine.

Insomnia in generalized anxiety disorder: polysomnographic, psychometric and clinical investigations before, during and after therapy with a long- versus a short-half-life benzodiazepine (quazepam versus triazolam).

Sleep efficiency improved after acute administration of both drugs, but the improvement was maintained by quazepam only, and anxiety improved significantly with both drugs and remained improved throughout 2 weeks post-drug placebo, with quzepam being slightly superior to triazolam.

Effects of butoctamide hydrogen succinate and nitrazepam on psychomotor function and EEG in healthy volunteers

The results indicated that BAHS, at the dose used, was less potent than nitrazepam and the effects on psychomotor performance and standing steadiness were minimal.