Locomotor performance of sand lizards (Lacerta agilis): effects of predatory pressure and parasite load

@article{EknerGrzyb2013LocomotorPO,
  title={Locomotor performance of sand lizards (Lacerta agilis): effects of predatory pressure and parasite load},
  author={Anna Ekner-Grzyb and Zofia Sajkowska and Krzysztof Dudek and Monika Gawałek and Piotr Sk{\'o}rka and Piotr Tryjanowski},
  journal={Acta Ethologica},
  year={2013},
  volume={16},
  pages={173 - 179}
}
Locomotor performance affects foraging efficiency, predator avoidance and consequently fitness. Agility and speed determine the animal's social status and reflect its condition. In this study, we test how predatory pressure and parasite load influences locomotor performance of wild specimens of the sand lizard Lacerta agilis. Animals were chased on a 2-metre racetrack. Lizards with autotomy ran significantly faster than lizards with an intact tail, but there was no significant difference in… 
Sprint speed is related to blood parasites, but not to ectoparasites, in an insular population of lacertid lizards
TLDR
A significant negative correlation is found between intensity of infection by haemogregarines and burst speed in an insular population of Lilford’s Wall Lizard and body condition is also significantly related to burst speed.
Ectoparasite load increase in reproductively active sand lizards
TLDR
Results indicate that both sexually-motivated extensive locomotion associated with territory defence and mate search in males, and increased energy uptake during gestation in females, contribute to elevated ectoparasite exposure, which leads to collateral burden of reproduction on sand lizard populations.
The movement dynamics of autotomized lizards and their tails reveal functional costs of caudal autotomy.
TLDR
It is proposed that, together with the recovery of post-autotomy antipredator capacities, the restoration of the organismal locomotor performance may have been an important, yet frequently neglected factor in the evolution of lizard's regeneration ability.
Time matters. Locomotor behavior of Lacerta viridis and Lacerta agilis in an open field maze
TLDR
Measured behavioral traits showed significant changes across time in L. viridis, thus indicating the importance of time as a factor when conducting behavioral experiments.
Do males pay more? A male-biased predation of common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) by great grey shrike (Lanius excubitor)
TLDR
It is suggested that in this particular predator-prey system, shrikes may be a strong selective force for lizards’ population dynamics and male-biased predation could be caused by differences in the behaviour of adult male and female lizards, namely longer activity of males and differences in space and refuge use.
Using body condition index can be an unreliable indicator of fitness: a case of sand lizard Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758 (Sauria: Lacertidae)
TLDR
This study demonstrates that the body condition index used to compare the fitness of lizards of different ages may not be accurate; in the future, research should strive to develop new ways of measuring lizards' fitness.
High predation risk decimates survival during the reproduction season
TLDR
It is found low survival rate and a low number of tail autotomy events during the months when sand lizard females mate and lay eggs, indicating high predator pressure throughout reproduction, when females fail to escape predation.
Experimental removal of nematode parasites increases growth, sprint speed, and mating success in brown anole lizards.
TLDR
This method for the long-term removal of nematode parasites from brown anole lizards using an extended-release formulation of the antiparasite drug ivermectin should be readily adaptable to many other small vertebrates, facilitating experimental tests of the extent to which parasites affect host phenotypes, fitness, and eco-evolutionary dynamics in the wild.
City life has fitness costs : reduced body condition and increased parasite load in urban common wall lizards , Podarcis muralis
TLDR
The physical condition index was lower in urban areas, and females were the most affected sex, which suggests significant fitness costs, as survival and reproductive output are often tightly linked to body condition.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 79 REFERENCES
Effects of Tail Autotomy on Anti-predator Behavior and Locomotor Performance in a Nocturnal Gecko
TLDR
The hypothesis that the locomotor costs associated with tail autotomy are relatively minor in lizard species where the tail plays no functional role in locomotion is supported.
Foraging Mode of the Sand Lizard, Lacerta agilis , at the Beginning of Its Yearly Activity Period
TLDR
Lizards counterbalance long movements with longer pauses in order to increase the probability of prey detection and capture, and there are no significant differences between PTM and MPM among sexes or age categories.
Effect of Caudal Autotomy on Locomotor Performance of Wall Lizards (Podarcis muralis)
TLDR
The results suggest that lizards that have been previously subjected to caudal autotomy are able to learn by experience how to compensate for the absence of a tail and, accordingly, traverse an arboreal substrate faster - even after their tail has regenerated and is subsequently autotomized again.
Relationships between locomotor performance, microhabitat use and antipredator behaviour in lacertid lizards
TLDR
The behavioural data suggest that vegetated patches may constitute a safe harbour for lacertid lizard species, and that most lizards fled more when in open or vertical microhabitats than when in densely vegetated ones, and when fleeing most species sought refuge in the vegetation.
Effect of caudal autotomy on locomotor performance in a viviparous skink, Niveoscincus metallicus
TLDR
The impact of tail loss on locomotor performance was generally limited or short-lived in N. metallicus, and female lizards regenerated their tails significantly faster than males.
Locomotor impairment and defense in gravid lizards (Eumeces laticeps): behavioral shift in activity may offset costs of reproduction in an active forager
TLDR
Observations suggest that gravid females become less active or conspicuous on the surface to allow some species the advantages inherent in both high relative clutch mass when gravid and the increased energetic profitability of active foraging when not gravid.
Locomotor speeds of gravid lizards: placing ‘costs of reproduction’ within an ecological context
TLDR
Climate and foraging modes may affect the degree to which locomotor speeds are influenced by pregnancy vs. other factors, offering a potential explanation for the lower overall reproductive investment per clutch in tropical vs. temperate-zone reptiles, and in lizards vs. snakes.
WHY DOES TAIL LOSS INCREASE A LIZARD'S LATER VULNERABILITY TO SNAKE PREDATORS?
TLDR
Tail loss increased a lizard's chances of being consumed first by a diurnal snake (Demansia psammophis), but not by a nocturnal species (Rhinoplocephalus nigrescens).
Effects of tail loss on the movement patterns of the lizard, Psammodromus algirus
TLDR
The movement patterns of spontaneously moving Psammodromus algirus lizards and their escape performance running at high speed were compared before and after tail loss, and alterations for the ecology of this species are discussed.
Variation in Locomotor Performance in Demographically Known Populations of the Lizard Sceloporus merriami
TLDR
Average performance varied significantly among years, but stamina varied more than did speed, and individual speed and stamina are both significantly repeatable over at least 1 yr.
...
...