We report a patient with localized, primary gastric amyloidosis, who presented with recurrent hematemesis, a rare presentation for an unusual disease. The patient was initially thought to have stomach cancer because of the X-ray and gastroscopic appearance of the gastric mucosa, but was eventually found to have primary amyloidosis confined to the stomach and regional lymph nodes. The amyloid was found to be of immunoglobulin origin, AL amyloid. Other reports of localized gastric amyloidosis are reviewed and compared with the present case. Most of the patients were clinically suspected of gastric carcinoma, and only one had hematemesis. We propose that amyloidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hematemesis and gastric tumors.