Fusel Alcohols Regulate Translation Initiation by Inhibiting eIF2B to Reduce Ternary Complex in a Mechanism That May Involve Altering the Integrity and Dynamics of the eIF2B Body
The eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) serves an essential recycling function in protein synthesis. As the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2, it recycles eIF2 from a GDP to a GTP bound form that is competent for translation initiation. Stress-dependent controls target this eIF2B-recycling step allowing a reprogramming of the global gene expression profile. In addition, a human disease, leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM), is caused by mutations in the eIF2B subunit genes. Recently, we have found that the eIF2B guanine nucleotide exchange factor resides in a specific cytoplasmic focus in the yeast, Saccharmoyces cerevisiae. eIF2B is a resident feature of this focus, whereas eIF2 shuttles to and fro. Moreover, the in vivo rate of eIF2 shuttling correlates with changes in guanine nucleotide exchange activity implicating this large cytoplasmic focus as a site of guanine nucleotide exchange. In this perspective, we discuss these findings in the wider context of the assortment of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.