Localization of the motor hand area to a knob on the precentral gyrus. A new landmark.

@article{Yousry1997LocalizationOT,
  title={Localization of the motor hand area to a knob on the precentral gyrus. A new landmark.},
  author={Tarek A. Yousry and U. D. Schmid and Hatem Alkadhi and D. Schmidt and Aurelia Peraud and A. Buettner and Peter A. Winkler},
  journal={Brain : a journal of neurology},
  year={1997},
  volume={120 ( Pt 1)},
  pages={
          141-57
        }
}
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we have evaluated the anatomical location of the motor hand area. The segment of the precentral gyrus that most often contained motor hand function was a knob-like structure, that is shaped like an omega or epsilon in the axial plane and like a hook in the sagittal plane. On the cortical surface of cadaver specimens this precentral knob corresponded precisely to the characteristic 'middle knee' of the central sulcus that has been described by… 

Localization of hand motor activation in Broca's pli de passage moyen.

The region of hand motor activation can be reliably identified on the surface of the brain by assessing anatomical relationships to nearby structures and blinded observers were able to identify the hand motor area reliably after instruction in using these surface landmarks.

Use of a Brain Navigator to Identify the Precentral Knob of the Precentral Gyrus in Normal Subjects

  • S. JangH. LeeEun Bi Choi
  • Medicine, Biology
    Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • 2022
This study showed that the anatomical location of the precentral knob in normal subjects could be identified using a brain navigator and this method may be used clinically for patients requiring neuromodulation.

The Myelin Content of the Human Precentral Hand Knob Reflects Interindividual Differences in Manual Motor Control at the Physiological and Behavioral Level

A higher myelin content of the precentral motor hand knob was associated with more rostral corticomotor presentations, with stronger task-related activation and a higher precision of movement timing during a visuomotor synchronization task.

Precentral Knob Corresponds to the Primary Motor and Premotor Area

Analysis of the reliability of the identification of the precentral knob in the axial image of magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI for the detection of M1 indicates that the pre central knob corresponds to PMA as well as to M1, whereas the gyrus activated in fMRI corresponds to M 1 on the affected and unaffected side.

Connectivity within the primary motor cortex: a DTI tractography study

The connectivity between the different regions of the precentral gyrus in a population of subjects is studied to establish a pattern of connectivity that has never before been detailed in the literature.

The Hand Motor Hotspot is not Always Located in the Hand Knob: A Neuronavigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

It is shown that the hMHS does not always correspond to the hand knob and M1 location in healthy subjects or patients, and image-guided navigation is needed to improve the anatomical accuracy of TMS targeting, even for M1.

Whole-hand sensorimotor area: cortical stimulation localization and correlation with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

A strong relationship was identified between the PPM, whole-hand sensory and motor stimulation responses, and fMR imaging hand activation and this study aimed to clarify the function subserved by the P PM and further evaluate hand area function in the primary sensorimotor cortex.
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