Local retinal regions control local eye growth and myopia.

@article{Wallman1987LocalRR,
  title={Local retinal regions control local eye growth and myopia.},
  author={Josh Wallman and Michael D. Gottlieb and Vandana Rajaram and L A Fugate-Wentzek},
  journal={Science},
  year={1987},
  volume={237 4810},
  pages={
          73-7
        }
}
In chicks, visual deprivation leads to myopia and enlargement of the vitreous chamber of the eye. When chicks were raised with white translucent occluders over their eyes so that either the nasal half, the temporal half, or all of the retina was visually deprived, the resulting myopia (median = -15 diopters) was limited to the deprived part of the retina, regardless of which half of the retina was visually deprived; the nondeprived part remained nearly emmetropic. Correspondingly, the vitreous… 
Retinal influences on sclera underlie visual deprivation myopia.
  • J. Wallman
  • Biology, Medicine
    Ciba Foundation symposium
  • 1990
TLDR
The results suggest that some factor in part of the retina can influence the growth of the subjacent sclera, explaining why deprivation causes ocular elongation and myopia, rather than simply larger eyes.
Visual deprivation causes myopia in chicks with optic nerve section.
TLDR
The results suggest that two different mechanisms may control eye growth, one within the eye and the other in the brain.
Neural control of eye growth and experimental myopia in primates.
TLDR
Results show that performing a visual task at close range may influence the axial length and refraction in this macaque species, and the effects of accommodation on the growth of the eye is explored by training juvenile arctoides monkeys to work on complex visual discrimination paradigms.
Scleral changes in chicks with form-deprivation myopia.
TLDR
The findings of the present study suggest that the eye enlargement accompanying form-deprivation myopia is not the consequence of scleral stretching but of abnormal growth.
Different visual deprivations produce different ametropias and different eye shapes.
To compare the effects on the postnatal development of the eye of both total and partial form deprivation in diurnally reared chicks and of dark-rearing, chicks were reared with occluders covering
6-Hydroxy dopamine does not affect lens-induced refractive errors but suppresses deprivation myopia
TLDR
In chickens, 6-hydroxy dopamine suppresses deprivation-induced myopia but has no effect on the magnitude of changes in axial eye elongation that are induced by spectacle lenses, suggesting that two pharmacologically different feedback loops may be responsible for deprivation myopia and lens-induced refractive errors.
Peripheral vision can influence eye growth and refractive development in infant monkeys.
TLDR
On the one hand, the peripheral retina can contribute to emmetropizing responses and to ametropias produced by an abnormal visual experience, and on the other hand, unrestricted central vision is not sufficient to ensure normal refractive development, and the fovea is not essential for emmetroizing responses.
Local ocular compensation for imposed local refractive error
TLDR
These chicks became selectively more myopic in the upper visual field than chicks raised in a high-ceiling environment, consistent with the idea of a visually mediated growth mechanism regulating the local refractive state across the entire visual field so that it matches the customary viewing conditions.
The regulation of eye growth and refractive state: An experimental study of emmetropization
TLDR
The possibility that vision is required for the regulation of eye growth was studied experimentally in chicks made myopic or hyperopic by different visual manipulations, indicating that refractive error, rather than eye size per se, guides the eye toward emmetropia.
Local Changes in Eye Growth induced by Imposed Local Refractive Error despite Active Accommodation
TLDR
It is proposed that lens-induced refractive errors are compensated by similar retinal mechanisms as the ones proposed by Bartmann and Schaeffel [(1994].
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