Local checkpoint inhibition of CTLA‐4 as a monotherapy or in combination with anti‐PD1 prevents the growth of murine bladder cancer

@article{Hooren2017LocalCI,
  title={Local checkpoint inhibition of CTLA‐4 as a monotherapy or in combination with anti‐PD1 prevents the growth of murine bladder cancer},
  author={Luuk van Hooren and Linda C. Sandin and Igor Viktorovic Moskalev and Peter Ellmark and Anna Dimberg and Peter McL. Black and Thomas H. T{\"o}tterman and Sara M. Mangsbo},
  journal={European Journal of Immunology},
  year={2017},
  volume={47}
}
Checkpoint blockade of CTLA‐4 results in long‐lasting survival benefits in metastatic cancer patients. However, patients treated with CTLA‐4 blockade have suffered from immune‐related adverse events, most likely due to the breadth of the induced T‐cell activation. Here, we investigated the efficacy of a local low‐dose anti‐CTLA‐4 administration for treatment of subcutaneous or orthotopic murine bladder 49 (MB49) bladder carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice. When MB49 tumors were grown s.c., peritumoral (p… 
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