Levosimendan combined with epinephrine improves rescue outcomes in a rat model of lipid-based resuscitation from bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest
Anesthesia is a sine qua non for most surgeries. Like any medical advance, progress in regional anesthesia has not come without its share of complications, including a spectrum extending from localized nerve injury to systemic cardiovascular toxicity and death. This article discusses the mechanisms and clinical presentation, prevention, treatment, and future trends of local anesthetic systemic toxicity. The adverse effects of lipid emulsion therapy are also included.