Local anesthetic failure in endodontics : Mechanisms and Management

  title={Local anesthetic failure in endodontics : Mechanisms and Management},
  author={Kenneth M Hargreaves and Karl Keiser},
Successful management of pain emergencies is a strong component of clinical excellence. Although clinical studies indicate that comparatively few patients experience pain after endodontic procedures, it has been estimated that about 20% of patients experience moderate-to-severe pain after treatment (1, 2, 3). An additional small fraction of patients (about 1– 2%) will experience a sudden ‘flare-up’ of severe pain or swelling after endodontic treatment. To compound the problem, the clinical… CONTINUE READING
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