Local and Global Light Bending in Einstein's and Other Gravitational Theories

@article{Ehlers1997LocalAG,
  title={Local and Global Light Bending in Einstein's and Other Gravitational Theories},
  author={J{\"u}rgen Ehlers and Wolfgang Rindler},
  journal={General Relativity and Gravitation},
  year={1997},
  volume={29},
  pages={519-529}
}
To remedy a certain confusion in the literature, we stress the distinction between local and global light bending. Local bending is a purely kinematic effect between mutually accelerating reference frames tracking the same signal, and applies via Einstein's equivalence principle exactly and equally in Newton's, Einstein's, Nordström's and other gravitational theories, independently of all field equations. Global bending, on the other hand, arises as an integral of local bending and depends… 
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