Local Adaptation, Coadaptation, and Population Boundaries

  title={Local Adaptation, Coadaptation, and Population Boundaries},
  author={Alan R. Templeton and Helmut Hemmer and Georgina M. Mace and Ulysses S. Seal and William M. Shields and David S. Woodruff},
  journal={Zoo Biology},
Coadaptation can occur either because of local adaptation in a geographically widespread population and/or because of intrinsic adaptation to the state of other genes or chomosomes. In either event, hybridization between animals with differently coadapted gene or chromosomal complexes can result in a decrease in fertility, viability, etc. in the initial hybrids and especially in later generations. This is known as an outbreeding depression. Moreover, releasing animals not adapted to the local… 
Genetic conservation in captive populations and endangered species
Estimates of several parameters in these models are presented for three examples of intermatings among different populations bred in captivity or conserved in natural habitats, guided (but not exactly prescribed) by the genetic models of migration, mating systems, and drift.
Simultaneous inbreeding and outbreeding depression in reintroduced Arabian oryx
Outbreeding depression may be more common in vertebrates than previously supposed, and conservation strategies that seek to maximize the genetic diversity of managed populations may risk mixing lineages that are sufficiently differentiated to cause outbreeding depression among descendants.
Subspecies hybridization as a potential conservation tool in species reintroductions
The study provides rare empirical evidence of the successful application of subspecies hybridization in a reintroduction and supports use of intraspecific hybridization as a tool to increase genetic diversity in conservation translocations.
Effects of genetic distance on heterosis in a Drosophila melanogaster model system
The results show that outcrossing can have very strong positive fitness consequences for genetically depauperate populations, and the potential for heterosis was proportional to the level of inbreeding depression.
The immediate costs and long-term benefits of assisted gene flow in large populations.
This work ran genetic simulations to mimic different AGF scenarios in large populations and measured their outcomes on population-level fitness to determine circumstances in which it is worthwhile to perform AGF.
Consequences of Hybridization in Mammals: A Systematic Review
A systematic review of studies on hybridization in mammals published in 2010-2021 found that of 13 categories of hybridization consequences described in these studies, the most common negative consequence was genetic swamping and the mostCommon positive consequence was the gain of novel adaptive variation.
The genetics of assisted gene flow: immediate costs and long-term benefits
It is shown that when translocation effort is divided across several generations and outbreeding depression is strong, the recipient population experiences a smaller decrease in fitness as compared to moving all individuals in a single effort, and in most cases, the genomic integrity of the recipients population remains relatively intact following AGF.
Impacts of Inbreeding in Natural and Captive Populations of Vertebrates: Implications for Conservation
The size below which a population is likely to get drawn into the extinction vortex is one useful definition of the Minimum Viable Population size (or MVP), and the phenomenon called "inbreeding depression" is observed.
Evaluating Assisted Gene Flow in Marginal Populations of a High Mountain Species
Many species cannot either migrate or adapt at the rate of temperature increases due to climate warming. Therefore, they need active conservation strategies to avoid extinction. Facilitated
Role of Genetics in Conservation Biology
  • S. Loew
  • Environmental Science, Biology
  • 2000
Populations that are dwindling in size are generally marked by high mortality or low birth rates and eventually may show changes in gene frequencies due to increased population subdivisions and reduced gene flow, so ecologists and conservation geneticists focus on changes in genetic variation to screen for possible threatened populations.


Pollen dispersal and optimal outcrossing in Delphinium nelsoni
It is suggested that outbreeding depression will often occur on a much finer scale than previously recognised, especially in plants subject to restricted pollen and seed dispersal, and a short outcrossing distance is optimal for Delphinium nelsoni Greene.
  • C. Oliver
  • Biology
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1972
Genetic differentiation between geographic populations is the result of local adaptation, and some idea of relative degree of differentiation should be arrived at by totalling up all of the perceptible phenotypic differences between populations.
Multilocus Systems in Evolution
Population studies of genetic variation and microevolution are classically discussed in terms of changes in gene frequencies and the maintenance of polymorphic loci that can be identified by
The lack of evidence for co-adaptation in crosses between geographical races of Drosophila subobscura Coll.
An attempt to see whether differences in co-adaptation between populations of Drosophila subobscura are related to the distance between them was described, finding no evidence of differences between populations even in crosses between populations from sites as far apart as Scotland and Israel.
Genetics of Natural Populations. Xviii. Experiments on Chromosomes of Drosophila Pseudoobscura from Different Geographic Regions.
It will be shown that chromosomes with the same gene arrangement found in geographically distinct populations have different adaptive properties.
The unit of selection in Drosophila mercatorum. I. The interation of selection and meiosis in parthenogenetic strains.
Evidence is given for a coadaptation to total homozygosity involving non-additive and non-multiplicative interactions between non-alleles in Drosophila merca torum, a strain capable of both sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction.
The kinds of genetic variability in relation to selection responses in Drosophila fecundity.
When flies collected at the period of rapid eclosion were compared, the trend of increasing egg production after the F, was found, and the results are as follows: 25.5.0, 31.3 eggs/female/day for parents, F,, and F2, respectively.
Sexual imprinting and optimal outbreeding
It is reported here that male Japanese quail mate with slightly unfamiliar females in preference to females to which they were exposed in early life, and that both types of female are preferred to those with a grossly unfamiliar type of plumage.
Principles of genetic conservation to wildlife management in Southern Africa: Review
Evidence is put forward that the conservation of genetic variation should be the prime consideration in the implementation of a nature conservation policy, for ecological, taxonomic and aesthetic reasons and it is suggested that the unthinking mixing of subspecies or ecotypes by 'conservation oriented' translocations is both biologically indefensible and ecologically harmful.