Local, Regional, and Spinal Anesthesia in Ruminants.


Local, regional, and spinal anesthesias are safe, effective, often more desirable procedures for ruminants than general anesthesia. Many procedures can be performed safely and humanely in ruminants using a combination of physical restraint, mild sedation, and local, regional, or spinal anesthesia. This article focuses on the use of local anesthetics for… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.cvfa.2016.05.015