FABPs in the various tissues play an important role in the intracellular fatty acid transport and metabolism. Reye's syndrome (RS) and multisystemic lipid storage (MLS) are human disorders characterized by a disturbance of lipid metabolism of unknown etiology. We investigated for the first time L-FABP in these two conditions. Affinity purified antibodies against chicken L-FABP were raised in rabbits, and found to cross-react specifically with partially purified human L-FABP. L-FABP content in liver samples of two patients with RS and MLS was investigated by immuno-histochemistry, SDS-PAGE and ELISA. L-FABP immuno-histochemistry showed increased reactivity in the liver of RS patient and normal reactivity in MLS liver. L-FABP increase in RS liver was confirmed by densitometry of SDS-PAGE and ELISA method. By these two methods the increase amounted to 180% and 199% (p < 0.02), respectively, as compared to controls. A possible role of L-FABP in the pathogenesis of RS is discussed.