Liver disease in Egypt: Hepatitis C superseded schistosomiasis as a result of iatrogenic and biological factors

  title={Liver disease in Egypt: Hepatitis C superseded schistosomiasis as a result of iatrogenic and biological factors},
  author={G. Thomas Strickland},
In Egypt, schistosomiasis was traditionally the most important public health problem and infection with Schistosoma mansoni the major cause of liver disease. From the 1950s until the 1980s, the Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH) undertook large control campaigns using intravenous tartar emetic, the standard treatment for schistosomiasis, as community‐wide therapy. This commendable effort to control a major health problem unfortunately established a very large reservoir of hepatitis C virus (HCV… 


From the 1950s to the 1980s, Egypt tried to control a schistosomiasis epidemic with a program of mass injections of tartar emetic, which spread hepatitis C to Egyptians in what is believed to be the largest iatro- genic transmission of blood-borne disease in history.

Human Schistosomiasis mansoni associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: current perspective

Analysis of the sex distribution among the studied groups showed that HCC was more common in males than females in both groups, and as regards the aggression of HCC, it was more commonly multifocal and larger in size in Patients with concomitant infection than in patients with HCV alone.

Hepatitis C in Egypt – past, present, and future

There has been a spectrum of treatments to target the public health disaster represented by the hepatitis C problem in Egypt: from the use of PEGylated interferon to the recent use of direct acting antiviral drugs.

Current Status of Schistosomiasis in Egypt: Parasitologic and Endoscopic Study in Sharqia Governorate

A decrease in the prevalence of schistosomiasis that may be explained by the current policy of schistsomiasis control in Egypt is revealed.

The peak impact of an Egyptain outbreak of hepatitis C virus: Has it passed or has not yet occurred?

Sero-prevalence of anti-HCV among these children is significantly lower than the detected one in Tanta city in 1991, and low positive PCR in these studies was referred to the healthy children who were tested during the community surveys.

A cross sectional study of the risk factors of hepatitis C infection in North Egypt

To study the main reasons of HCV prevalence in the Egyptian Delta valley, a questionnaire-based study was conducted by members of the HCV Fighters project, and the most probable risk factors included regular visits to dental clinics and history of bilharzial infection.

Neglected tropical diseases as a cause of chronic liver disease: the case of Schistosomiasis and Hepatitis C Co‐infections in Egypt

It is found that these two co-infections and their synergies in promoting liver disease in Egypt represent an illustrative example of a burden of a CNCD in LMICs.

In Egyptians, a mutation in the lymphotoxin-α gene may increase susceptibility to hepatitis C virus but not that to schistosomal infection

The LTα mutation may have a role in susceptibility to HCV infection (and the subsequent development of clinical manifestations) but appears to have little if any effect on susceptibility to schistosome infection.

Fibroscan of chronic HCV patients coinfected with schistosomiasis.

  • G. EsmatA. Elsharkawy S. Labib
  • Medicine, Biology
    Arab journal of gastroenterology : the official publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
  • 2013



High prevalence of hepatitis C in Egyptian patients with chronic liver disease.

Of 1023 patients referred to the Liver Institute in Menoufia governorate for evaluation of chronic liver disease, 752 had antibodies to hepatitis C compared with 168 with hepatitis B surface antigen, and histological findings consistent with chronic viral hepatitis or its complications were found in 89.

Hepatitis c and cirrhotic liver disease in the Nile delta of Egypt: a community-based study.

The hypothesis that past mass parenteral chemotherapy campaigns for schistosomiasis facilitated HCV transmission is consistent with the hypothesis that HCV may be a major cause of the high prevalence of liver cirrhosis in this Nile village.

Role of hepatitis C infection in chronic liver disease in Egypt.

Data support the belief that HCV is the predominant cause of CLD in Egypt and suggest there is a large underlying reservoir of HCV-caused liver disease.

Chronic hepatitis B in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni.

A village, 20 miles north of Cairo, was surveyed in 1976 by the Center of Disease Control (CDC) and the Egyptian Ministry of Health for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and found active Schistosoma mansoni infection.

Clinical, virological and histopathological features: long-term follow-up in patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with S. mansoni.

Patients with concomitant HCV and schistosomiasis infection were characterized by more advanced liver disease, higher HCV RNA titers, predominance of HCV genotype 4, higher histologic activity, higher incidence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as well as a much higher mortality rate.

Schistosomiasis mansoni in an Egyptian village in the Nile Delta.

The long-term morbidity produced by schistosomiasis at the village level was better defined, with peak prevalence and intensity of infection was in the age groups between 10 and 40 years, however, most villagers over 40 were still excreting large numbers of eggs.

Hepatitis c in a community in Upper Egypt: risk factors for infection.

The results did not reveal any unique community-acquired exposures that caused HCV infections: inhabitants who had tattoos, who smoked goza, who were shaved by a community barber, or who had their ears pierced were not at greater risk for anti-HCV than those who did not.