Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa) is an inherited disorder of glucose metabolism, due to the selective deficiency of the hepatic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase. Clinical manifestations include severe hypoglycaemia three to four hours post-prandially, increased production of lactic acid, triglycerides and uric acid, hepatic glycogen storage disease with development of multiple adenomas and kidney disease with proteinuria. Liver transplantation is frequently performed in order to achieve metabolic control and when malignant transformation of adenomas is suspected. Long term outcome following transplantation is good, but immunosuppressive therapy can worsen the progression of associated kidney disease. Hepatocyte transplantation could be considered as a less invasive procedure in such patients. Our experience with hepatocyte transplantation in a 47 year-old woman affected by glycogen storage disease type Ia and suffering of severe fasting hypoglycaemia indicates that the procedure can partially correct some metabolic abnormalities and improve the quality of life in this disease. However, the metabolic improvement was reduced and finally abolished during long term follow-up, probably due to rejection or to senescence of transplanted cells. Moreover, the portal and pulmonary hypertension associated with the disease need to be evaluated for their possible influence on haemodynamic changes associated with cell infusion. Finally, hepatic adenomas need careful monitoring because of the possible risk of malignant transformation.