Liver Regeneration

  title={Liver Regeneration},
  author={George K. Michalopoulos and Marie Defrances},
  booktitle={Journal of Cellular Physiology},
Liver regeneration after the loss of hepatic tissue is a fundamental parameter of liver response to injury. Recognized as a phenomenon from mythological times, it is now defined as an orchestrated response induced by specific external stimuli and involving sequential changes in gene expression, growth factor production, and morphologic structure. Many growth factors and cytokines, most notably hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-α, interleukin-6, tumor… 

Liver Regeneration and Immunity: A Tale to Tell

The aim of this review is to add new findings that integrate the regenerative pathway to the current knowledge, to allow a more detailed characterisation of the molecular mechanisms that are crucial in the interplay between proliferation and inflammation.

Liver regeneration.

Redox experimental medicine and liver regeneration

Modulation of redox-dependent molecular pathways to enhance liver regeneration is even more intriguing, and preliminary studies focused on the identification of these targets will pave the way for viable therapies to be tested in clinical trials.

The balancing act of the liver: tissue regeneration versus fibrosis

The cellular and molecular switches that balance hepatic regeneration and fibrosis are explored, with a focus on uncovering avenues of disease modeling and therapeutic intervention.

Liver Regeneration: Different Sub-Populations of Parenchymal Cells at Play Choreographed by an Injury-Specific Microenvironment

The molecular mechanisms supporting liver regeneration and parenchymal reconstitution are reviewed to determine potential targets that would be amenable for therapeutic manipulation to enhance liver regeneration.

A model of liver regeneration.

Liver regeneration: biological and pathological mechanisms and implications

The regenerative mechanisms employed by hepatic cells after liver injury as well as the experimental models used to investigate these mechanisms are described and the clinical implications are discussed.


A distinct pro-fibrotic role of PDGFRα in HSCs during chronic liver injury in both mice and human primary cells is supported and provides an important pre-clinical foundation for the future testing of therapeutic PDG FRα inhibition in hepatic fibrosis.

Hallmarks of postoperative liver regeneration: An updated insight on the regulatory mechanisms

Eight hallmarks, including hepatocyte proliferation, contribution of hepatic progenitor cells, inducing angiogenesis, reprogramming of the extracellular matrix, apoptosis and termination of proliferation, inflammation, immune and metabolic regulation, are set as organizing characteristics of postoperative liver regeneration and future directions of refining treatment targets.



Liver regeneration, growth factors, and amphiregulin.

The preponderance of evidence suggests that the cytokine effects facilitate optimal timing and orchestration of the early signaling events after PHx, summarized under the term priming of hepatocytes.

Liver regeneration: from myth to mechanism

  • R. Taub
  • Biology
    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
  • 2004
The numerous cytokine- and growth-factor-mediated pathways that are involved in regulating liver regeneration are being successfully dissected using molecular and genetic approaches.

Liver regeneration: the emergence of new pathways.

  • A. Zimmermann
  • Biology, Medicine
    Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • 2002
The present overview summarizes important knowledge having accumulated during the last years about liver regeneration, which has in part been defined by use of animal models with target gene deletions (gene knockouts).

Rapid activation of the stat3 transcription complex in liver regeneration

The identification of Stat3 as an early factor in liver regeneration provides clues to the activation of signal transduction pathways in the remnant liver within the first minutes to several hours after partial hepatectomy.

Liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis in transforming growth factor-alpha-targeted mice.

It is reported here that although a 70% hepatectomy produced a significant increase in hepatic TGF alpha protein levels in wild-type mice, liver regeneration nevertheless proceeded normally in the absence of the growth factor.

Liver Failure and Defective Hepatocyte Regeneration in Interleukin-6-Deficient Mice

Treatment ofIL-6-deficient mice with a single preoperative dose of IL-6 returned STAT3 binding, gene expression, and hepatocyte proliferation to near normal and prevented liver damage, establishing that IL- 6 is a critical component of the regenerative response.

Liver regeneration versus direct hyperplasia

  • A. ColumbanoH. Shinozuka
  • Biology, Medicine
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 1996
Definition of the mechanisms by which primary mitogens stimulate liver cell proliferation may elucidate the nature of the signals responsible for triggering the entry into cell cycle.

Caveolin-1 Is Essential for Liver Regeneration

Cav1–/– mice exhibited impaired liver regeneration and low survival after a partial hepatectomy and treatment with glucose drastically increased survival and reestablished progression of the cell cycle.

Impaired liver regeneration in inducible nitric oxide synthasedeficient mice.

  • R. RaiF. Y. Lee A. Diehl
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
It is reported that the hepatocyte proliferative response to partial liver resection is severely inhibited in transgenic mice with targeted disruption of the iNOS gene, suggesting that during successful tissue regeneration, injury-related cytokines induce factors, such as iN OS and its product, NO, that protect surviving cells from cytokine-mediated death.