Liver: The liver as a firewall—clearance of commensal bacteria that have escaped from the gut

  title={Liver: The liver as a firewall—clearance of commensal bacteria that have escaped from the gut},
  author={Natalie J. Wood},
  journal={Nature Reviews Gastroenterology \&Hepatology},
  • Natalie J. Wood
  • Published 17 June 2014
  • Medicine
  • Nature Reviews Gastroenterology &Hepatology
Liver: The liver as a firewall—clearance of commensal bacteria that have escaped from the gut 

Intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of liver damage: From non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to liver transplantation

In patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease recent hypotheses are considering intestinal permeability impairment, diet and gut dysbiosis as the primary pathogenic trigger, and the decrease in portal pressure should determine beneficial effects on the gut-liver axis.

Intestinal Barrier and Permeability in Health, Obesity and NAFLD

The morphological-functional features of the intestinal barrier, the role of major modifiers of the intestine barrier, and the recent evidence pointing to the key role of intestinal permeability in obesity/NAFLD are described.

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The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide and parallels comorbidities such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and diabetes, with mechanisms partially independent from excessive caloric intake.

Immunosuppressive Tryptophan Catabolism and Gut Mucosal Dysfunction Following Early HIV Infection.

Early initiation of ART normalized enhanced Trp catabolism and immune activation but did not improve plasma levels of gut mucosal dysfunction markers.

Dendrobium officinale Polysaccharide Protected CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis Through Intestinal Homeostasis and the LPS-TLR4-NF-κB Signaling Pathway

Results indicated that DOP maintained intestinal homeostasis by enhancing tight junctions between intestinal cells and reducing apoptosis, thereby inhibiting activation of the LPS-TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway to protect against liver fibrosis.


The Liver May Act as a Firewall Mediating Mutualism Between the Host and Its Gut Commensal Microbiota

It is shown that the liver forms a second vascular barrier for eliminating commensal bacteria that have escaped from the gut, which may act as a functional vascular firewall that clears commensals that have penetrated either intestinal or systemic vascular circuits.