Live plant imports: the major pathway for forest insect and pathogen invasions of the US

@article{Liebhold2012LivePI,
  title={Live plant imports: the major pathway for forest insect and pathogen invasions of the US},
  author={Andrew M. Liebhold and Eckehard G. Brockerhoff and Lynn J. Garrett and Jennifer Lee Parke and Kerry O. Britton},
  journal={Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment},
  year={2012},
  volume={10},
  pages={135-143}
}
Trade in live plants has been recognized worldwide as an important invasion pathway for non-native plant pests. Such pests can have severe economic and ecological consequences. Nearly 70% of damaging forest insects and pathogens established in the US between 1860 and 2006 most likely entered on imported live plants. The current regulation of plant imports is outdated and needs to balance the impacts of pest damage, the expense of mitigation efforts, and the benefits of live plant importation… 

Figures from this paper

Increasing forest loss worldwide from invasive pests requires new trade regulations

TLDR
It is shown that the number of forest pest invasions recorded for a given country has a significant positive relationship with trade (as indicated by gross domestic product) and is not associated with the amount of forested land within that country.

The potential of symptomless potted plants for carrying invasive soilborne plant pathogens

TLDR
The results of this study strongly support the case for more rigorous European legislation on the trade of live plants in pots, as eradication of soilborne organisms is difficult, if not impossible, an embargo on plant movements into the EU and between member states is the only advisable measure against the spread of these pathogens.

Safeguarding global plant health: the rise of sentinels

TLDR
The usefulness of sentinel plantings is illustrated using examples of arthropod pests and fungal pathogens of European and Asian tree species that were identified in sentinel studies in China and the Asian Russia.

Ecological Consequences of Pathogen and Insect Invasions

  • P. Tobin
  • Environmental Science
    Current Forestry Reports
  • 2015
TLDR
Variation in establishment success and ecological consequences exerted by nonnative forest insects and pathogens are discussed, characteristics of high-impact species are defined, and recent research on the ecological consequences of these high- impact species in forest ecosystems are reviewed.

Identification of new pests likely to be introduced into Europe with the fruit trade

Global trade of plants and plant products facilitates the international movement of pests. The introduction of new pests in an area may have huge economic consequences for local plant production, and

The Legacy of Charles Marlatt and Efforts to Limit Plant Pest Invasions

TLDR
It is reported that there are presently more than 3,000 non-native insect species established in North America, and most are plant-feeding species.

Invasive Insects in Forest Plantations of Argentina: Ecological Patterns and Implications for Management

In the last decades, growing international trade and tourism have significantly increased the rate at which non-native species reach new ecosystems. Plantation forest systems in Argentina are

Sentinel nurseries to assess the phytosanitary risks from insect pests on importations of live plants

TLDR
The results show the benefit of sentinel nurseries to identify potential infestation of plant commodity imports and classify 9%, 7% and 84% of the insect records as presenting a high, moderate and low likelihood of introduction, respectively.

Non-native Forest Insects and Pathogens in Australia: Establishment, Spread, and Impact

Geographic isolation, unique native flora, and a robust biosecurity system have resulted in Australia remaining free from many of the devastating exotic pests found in other countries. Nevertheless,

The fruit and vegetable import pathway for potential invasive pest arrivals

TLDR
This paper uses inspection data that covers almost all U.S. fruit and vegetable imports from 2005–2014 to estimate a logit model of the probability of potential invasive species arrival and expected propagule frequencies for 2,240 commodity/country of origin combinations.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 124 REFERENCES

The impact of invasive fungi on agricultural ecosystems in the United States

TLDR
In this paper, examples are presented of invasive fungi on agricultural commodities introduced into the United States and two factors have been crucial: first, the pathway through which these fungi have entered, and second, systematic knowledge to prevent and respond to the new invasive species.

Global change, global trade, and the next wave of plant invasions

Many non-native plants in the US have become problematic invaders of native and managed ecosystems, but a new generation of invasive species may be at our doorstep. Here, we review trends in the

Historical Accumulation of Nonindigenous Forest Pests in the Continental United States

TLDR
A comprehensive species list to assess the accumulation rates of nonindigenous forest insects and pathogens established in the United States found sap feeders and foliage feeders dominated the comprehensive list, but phloem- and wood-boring insects and foliageFeeders were often more damaging than expected.

Economic Impacts of Non-Native Forest Insects in the Continental United States

TLDR
The damage estimates provide a crucial but previously missing component of cost-benefit analyses to evaluate policies and management options intended to reduce species introductions and could be similarly employed to estimate damages in other countries or natural resource sectors.

Interceptions of Nonindigenous Plant Pests at US Ports of Entry and Border Crossings Over a 17-year Period

TLDR
Insects dominated the PIN database, with the orders Homoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera collectively accounting for over 75% of the insect records, while plant pathogens, weeds and mollusks accounted for 13, 7 and 1% of all pest records, respectively.

How can alien species inventories and interception data help us prevent insect invasions?

TLDR
An economic impact was found for 40% of the alien insects in Switzerland and Austria, whereas none is known to have an ecological impact, and Sternorrhyncha, Coleoptera and Psocoptera were particularly well represented in the alien fauna compared to the native fauna.

Invasion biology, ecology, and management of the light brown apple moth (Tortricidae).

TLDR
The importance of the light brown apple moth has prompted development of classical biological control programs together with a wide variety of other management interventions that can be used in integrated pest management or integrated pest eradication.

Invasive species: vectors and management strategies.

TLDR
Invasive Species brings together in a single volume new information from leading scientists around the world on approaches to controlling and managing invasion vectors, as the latest contribution from the Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP).

Recent non‐native invertebrate plant pest establishments in Great Britain: origins, pathways, and trends

1 An appraisal of non‐native invertebrate plant pest establishments in Great Britain, between 1970 and 2004, was carried out to improve our understanding of current invasion processes by non‐native

The biosecurity threat to the UK and global environment from international trade in plants

TLDR
In this Letter I outline the problems and discuss some possible approaches to reducing the threats to native plant communities, woodlands and landscapes in the UK and across the world.
...