Live high-train low for 24 days increases hemoglobin mass and red cell volume in elite endurance athletes.

@article{Wehrlin2006LiveHL,
  title={Live high-train low for 24 days increases hemoglobin mass and red cell volume in elite endurance athletes.},
  author={Jon Peter Wehrlin and Peter Zuest and Jostein Hall{\'e}n and Bernard Marti},
  journal={Journal of applied physiology},
  year={2006},
  volume={100 6},
  pages={
          1938-45
        }
}
The effect of live high-train low on hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) and red cell volume (RCV) in elite endurance athletes is still controversial. We expected that Hb(mass) and RCV would increase, when using a presumably adequate hypoxic dose. An altitude group (AG) of 10 Swiss national team orienteers (5 men and 5 women) lived at 2,500 m (18 h per day) and trained at 1,800 and 1,000 m above sea level for 24 days. Before and after altitude, Hbmass, RCV (carbon monoxide rebreathing method), blood, iron… 
Is live high–train low altitude training relevant for elite athletes with already high total hemoglobin mass?
TLDR
It is the view that the greatest likelihood for the LHTL intervention not to increase Hbmass, VO2max, or performance was the already high HBMass values of the subjects, and analysis of relevant studies can provide insights into this question.
Hemoglobin Mass and Aerobic Performance at Moderate Altitude in Elite Athletes.
TLDR
New studies support the argument that it is possible to increase Hbmass temporarily by 5-6 %, provided that athletes spend >400 h at altitudes above 2300-2500 m, however, this effect size is smaller than the reported 10-14 % higher HBMass values of endurance athletes living permanently at 2600 m.
Impact of Energy Availability, Health, and Sex on Hemoglobin-Mass Responses Following Live-High-Train-High Altitude Training in Elite Female and Male Distance Athletes.
TLDR
The findings confirm the importance of baseline HBMass and exposure to hypoxia on increases in Hbmass during altitude training, while emphasizing the importance in athlete health and indices of EA on an optimal baseline HbmASS and hematological response to hypoxic exposure.
Improved running economy and increased hemoglobin mass in elite runners after extended moderate altitude exposure.
TLDR
Hypoxic exposure of approximately 400h was sufficient to improve Hb(mass), a response not observed with shorter exposures, and total O(2) carrying capacity was improved, the mechanism(s) to explain the lack of proportionate increase in V(O)(2max) were not identified.
The Modifications of Haemoglobin, Erythropoietin Values and Running Performance While Training at Mountain vs. Hilltop vs. Seaside
TLDR
While high-altitude training elicited greater relative increases in EPO, VMA, and VO2max, sand training resulted in comparable increases in Hb and may prevent hypoxia-induced weight loss.
Hypobaric live high‐train low does not improve aerobic performance more than live low‐train low in cross‐country skiers
TLDR
It is suggested that in young cross‐country skiers, improvements in sea‐level aerobic performance associated with LHTL may not be due to moderate‐altitude acclimatization.
Living high–training low: effect on erythropoiesis and maximal aerobic performance in elite Nordic skiers
TLDR
It is suggested that increasing the altitude up to 3,500 m during Hi–Lo stimulates erythropoiesis but does not confer any advantage for maximal O2 transport.
The role of haemoglobin mass on VO2max following normobaric ‘live high–train low’ in endurance-trained athletes
TLDR
The present results suggest that LHTL has no positive effect on VO2max in endurance-trained athletes because (i) muscle maximal oxidative capacity is not improved following L HTL and (ii) erythrocyte volume expansion after LHTl, if any, is too small to alter O2 transport.
Relationship between changes in haemoglobin mass and maximal oxygen uptake after hypoxic exposure
TLDR
It is concluded that altitude training of endurance athletes will result in an increase in O2max of more than half the magnitude of the increase in Hbmass, which supports the use of altitude training by athletes.
Living at high altitude in combination with sea-level sprint training increases hematological parameters but does not improve performance in rats
TLDR
After 21 days of living at high altitude the authors found a significant increase in the hematological values determined in the study, contrary to the starting hypothesis, the combination of normobaric hypoxia and sprint training did not improve MAV in animals.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 39 REFERENCES
A three-week traditional altitude training increases hemoglobin mass and red cell volume in elite biathlon athletes.
TLDR
It is shown for the first time that a three-week traditional altitude training increases erythropoietic activity even in world class endurance athletes leading to elevated tHb and RCV.
“Live high, train low” does not change the total haemoglobin mass of male endurance athletes sleeping at a simulated altitude of 3000 m for 23 nights
TLDR
It is concluded that red blood cell production is not stimulated in male endurance athletes who spend 23 nights at a simulated altitude of 3000 m.
Blood volume and hemoglobin mass in endurance athletes from moderate altitude.
TLDR
In endurance athletes who are native to moderate altitude, tHb and BV were synergistically influenced by training and by altitude exposure, which is probably one important reason for their high performance.
Altitude training at 2690m does not increase total haemoglobin mass or sea level VO2max in world champion track cyclists.
TLDR
The data suggest that for these elite cyclists any benefit of altitude training was not from changes in VO2max or Hb mass, although this does not exclude the possibility of improved anaerobic capacity.
VO2max and haemoglobin mass of trained athletes during high intensity training.
TLDR
It is concluded that trained athletes with erythrocythemic hypervolemia have limited capability to increase further either total red cell volume or Hb mass.
Increased left ventricular muscle mass after long-term altitude training in athletes.
TLDR
In conclusion, training at moderate altitude may cause a reduction in heart rates during exercise and after long-term training at altitude, there may be an increase in the cardiac left ventricular muscle mass.
“Living high − training low” altitude training improves sea level performance in male and female élite runners
TLDR
4’weeks of acclimatization to moderate altitude, accompanied by high‐intensity training at low altitude, improves sea level endurance performance even in élite runners, and the mechanism and magnitude appear similar to that observed in less accomplished runners.
Blood volume and hemoglobin mass in elite athletes of different disciplines.
TLDR
VO(2)max was significantly related to tHb and BV not only in the whole group but also in all endurance disciplines, suggesting increased adaptation to training stimuli and probably also individual predisposing genetic factors.
Effects of a 12-day “live high, train low” camp on reticulocyte production and haemoglobin mass in elite female road cyclists
TLDR
It is concluded that in elite female road cyclists, 12 nights of exposure to normobaric hypoxia is not sufficient to either stimulate reticulocyte production or increase haemoglobin mass.
Effects of iron supplementation on total body hemoglobin during endurance training at moderate altitude.
TLDR
It is concluded that 18 days of endurance training at an altitude of 1800 m does not lead to an increase of TBH in non-iron-depleted athletes with and without iron supplementation.
...
1
2
3
4
...