Live fish vaccines: history and perspectives.

  title={Live fish vaccines: history and perspectives.},
  author={Abdenour Benmansour and P de Kinkelin},
  journal={Developments in biological standardization},
In the development of live vaccines against enzootic fish viral diseases, the conventional approaches, although somewhat successful, failed finally to deliver efficient, safe, and tagged strains for vaccine application. The genetically-engineered vaccine approach also gave similarly disappointing results. Faced with these realities during our work with VHS, we turned our research effort towards understanding the molecular basis of virulence and antigenicity of the virus. Using sequence analysis… CONTINUE READING