Live Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus pyogenes differentially regulate Toll‐like receptor (TLR) gene expression in human primary macrophages

@article{Miettinen2008LiveLR,
  title={Live Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus pyogenes differentially regulate Toll‐like receptor (TLR) gene expression in human primary macrophages},
  author={Minja Miettinen and Ville Veckman and Sinikka Latvala and Timo Sareneva and Sampsa Matikainen and Ilkka Julkunen},
  journal={Journal of Leukocyte Biology},
  year={2008},
  volume={84}
}
Macrophages are phagocytes that recognize bacteria and subsequently activate appropriate innate and adaptive immune responses. TLRs are essential in identifying conserved bacterial structures and in initiating and mediating innate immune responses. In this work, we have characterized TLR gene expression in human monocyte‐derived macrophages in response to stimulation with two live Gram‐positive bacteria, a human commensal and probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), and an important human… 
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