Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited

@article{Grnfeld2009LithiumNR,
  title={Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited},
  author={Jean Pierre Gr{\"u}nfeld and Bernard C Rossier},
  journal={Nature Reviews Nephrology},
  year={2009},
  volume={5},
  pages={270-276}
}
Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. Renal lithium toxicity is characterized by increased water and sodium diuresis, which can result in mild dehydration, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis. The concentrating defect and natriuretic effect develop within weeks of lithium initiation. After years of lithium exposure, full-blown nephropathy… 
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