Lithium/Carbon Monofluoride (Li/CFx): A New Pacemaker Battery

  title={Lithium/Carbon Monofluoride (Li/CFx): A New Pacemaker Battery},
  author={Wilson Greatbatch and Curtis F. Holmes and Esther Sans Takeuchi and Steven J. Ebel},
  journal={Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology},
The reduction in pacemaker size coupled with the addition of more current demanding functions has motivated the development of batteries that can supply higher current densities at useful voltages than the lithium/iodine batteries in use today while retaining the volumetric energy density of that system. The lithium/CFx system offers an attractive alternative for advanced pacemaker systems. The battery can deliver currents in the milliampere range without significant voltage drop. The system is… 

Simulation of the Lithium/CFx System

The lithium/CFx system has been successfully used as the chemical system in batteries used to power medical devices for humans. In this work, amassed longterm discharge and open-circuit-potential

Batteries, 1977 to 2002

Battery systems have undergone significant improvements over the past 25 years. Older systems have been updated with new materials and constructions. New lithium and nickel systems have been

The Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Power Source: Evolution and Revolution

All cardiac implantable electronic devices are powered by lithium anode batteries, mainly because of the demands of biventricular pacing, data logging, and telemetry.

Practical Model-Based Methodologies to Determine the State of Charge of Li/CFx Batteries

In the realm of primary cells, the Li/CFx chemistry holds immense potential due to its unmatched theoretical specific energy, longevity, and shelf time. However, little work has been done on creating

Pushing the theoretical limit of Li-CF(x) batteries: a tale of bifunctional electrolyte.

This work demonstrates that the most energy-dense Li-CF(x) battery delivers a capacity exceeding the theoretical maximum of CF(x), with a solid electrolyte of Li3PS4 (LPS) that has dual functions: as the inert electrolyte at the anode and the active component at the cathode.

End of Life Simulation of the Lithium/CFx System

The lithium/CFx system has been successfully used as the chemical system in batteries used to power medical devices for humans. Previous work has simulated cell behavior based on the dominance of the

Energy Harvesting: A Toxic Free and Reliable Power Sourcefor Implantable Microsystems

The implantable medical devices require constant power source and for this requirement, batteries have been developed that has enabled the successful deployment of the devices and their treatment of



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Lightweight, implantable lithium/carbon monofluoride primary cells were developed and discharged under a family of constant resistance loads at 37/spl deg/C. Closed circuit potential and internal

Performance aspects of low rate lithium/CFx cells

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