The Use of Omic Technologies Applied to Traditional Chinese Medicine Research
The toxic effects of oral administrations of nephrotoxic and carcinogenic aristolochic acid (AA) to male Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Analysis of the urine and plasma samples revealed distinct changes in the biochemical patterns in the AA-dosed rats. After peak finding and alignment, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used for multivariate data analysis. Potential biomarkers were studied by high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analyses. The MS/MS spectra of all endogenous metabolites satisfying the pre-defined criteria were acquired in a single information-dependent acquisition (IDA) analysis, demonstrating that IDA was an efficient approach for structural elucidation in metabonomic studies. Citric acid and a glucuronide-containing metabolite were observed as potential biomarkers in rat urine. A significant increase in plasma creatinine concentration was also observed in the AA-dosed rats, which indicated that AA induced an adverse effect on the renal clearance function.