Effects of metronidazole combined probiotics over metronidazole alone for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
In this study, the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (pLTA) on LPS-induced MAPK activation, NF-kappaB activation, and the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1R-associated kinase M (IRAK-M) was examined. The expression of the pattern recognition receptor and the survival rate of mice were also examined. pLTA pretreatment inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 kinase. It also inhibited the degradation of IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta, as well as the activation of the LPS-induced TNF-alpha factor in response to subsequent LPS stimulation. These changes were accompanied by the suppression of the LPS-induced expression of TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2, and the induction of IRAK-M, with a concurrent reduction of TNF-alpha secretion. Furthermore, the overexpression of pattern recognition receptors such as TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 and the degradation of IRAK-M by transient transfection were found to reinstate the production of TNF-alpha after LPS restimulation. In addition, the i.p. injection of pLTA suppressed fatality, and decreased the level of TNF-alpha in the blood, in LPS-induced endotoxin shock mice. In conclusion, these data extend our understanding of the pLTA tolerance mechanism, which is related to the inhibition of LPS-induced endotoxin shock, and suggest that pLTA may have promise as a new therapeutic agent for LPS-induced septic shock.