Lipoprotein utilization and cholesterol synthesis by the human fetal adrenal gland.

@article{Carr1981LipoproteinUA,
  title={Lipoprotein utilization and cholesterol synthesis by the human fetal adrenal gland.},
  author={Bruce Richard Carr and Evan R. Simpson},
  journal={Endocrine reviews},
  year={1981},
  volume={2 3},
  pages={
          306-26
        }
}
A model proposed for regulation of steroidogenesis, lipoprotein utilization and cholesterol metabolism in HFA tissue is presented in Fig 17. We envision that the role of ACTH and cAMP in steroidogenesis and cholesterol metabolism is as follows. ACTH binds to specific receptors on the surface of the cells of the HFA gland and as a consequence, adenylate cyclase is activated, leading to increased formation of cAMP. cAMP causes activation of protein kinase that leads, presumably, to… 
The role of lipoproteins in steroidogenesis and cholesterol metabolism in steroidogenic glands.
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Two distinct lipoprotein-specific, hormonally regulated mechanisms for Lipoprotein cholesterol uptake by steroidogenic tissues have been elucidated.
Steroidogenesis in the human fetal adrenal: a role for cholesterol synthesized de novo.
  • J. Mason, W. Rainey
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • 1987
TLDR
Cholesterologenesis de novo in addition to plasma LDL is important as a source of steroid precursor in vivo in the human fetal adrenal gland as well as a rate-determining enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis.
Cholesterol uptake in adrenal and gonadal tissues: the SR-BI and 'selective' pathway connection.
TLDR
The present review summarizes the functional importance of the selective pathway as a bulk cholesterol delivery system for steroidogenesis, and attempts to detail the expression, regulation and characteristics of SR-BI as it is deployed in steroidogenic systems as a means of achieving cholesterol balance.
Generation of regulatory oxysterols: 26-hydroxylation of cholesterol by ovarian mitochondria.
TLDR
It is suggested that 26-hydroxycholesterol is an intracrine regulator that controls cellular sterol metabolism and may be regulated by steroidogenic activity in such a way as to ensure availability of steroid hormone precursors.
Cholesterol synthesis by human fetal hepatocytes: effects of hormones.
  • B. Carr, E. Simpson
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • 1984
TLDR
The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if hormones, particularly those produced by the fetal-placental unit, might serve to stimulate cholesterol synthesis in the human fetal liver.
Apolipoprotein A-I is required for cholesteryl ester accumulation in steroidogenic cells and for normal adrenal steroid production.
TLDR
Results suggest that apo A-I is essential for the selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters, which has a major impact on adrenal gland physiology causing diminished basal corticosteroid production, a blunted steroidogenic response to stress, and increased expression of compensatory pathways to provide cholesterol substrate for steroid production.
Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency in mice causes lipid storage in the adrenal cortex and impaired corticosterone response to corticotropin stimulation.
TLDR
Results indicate that HSL-deficient mice accumulate lipid droplets in such a way as to impair acute ACTH stimulation of corticosterone secretion, which may be a cause of hereditary adrenocortical hypofunction in humans and also found in some forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
Expression and Regulation of the Lipoprotein Lipase Gene in Human Adrenal Cortex*
TLDR
Data indicate that LPL is expressed in human adrenal cortex and regulated in NCI-H295 adrenocortical carcinoma cells by activators of the protein kinase A andprotein kinase C second messenger pathways in a manner comparable to P450scc, which catalyzes the first step in adrenal steroidogenesis.
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References

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TLDR
The capacity of HFA to synthesize cholesterol de novo was determined by measuring the rate of incorporation of [l4C]acetate into cholesterol by HFA tissue maintained in organ culture and determining the specific activity of 3-hydroxy- 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase in microsomes prepared from H FA tissue.
Human anencephalic adrenal tissue: low density lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol synthesis.
TLDR
The rate of cholesterol synthesis in adrenal tissue from anencephalic newborns was determined by measuring the rate of incorporation of [14C]acetate into cholesterol and the specific activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase.
The role of serum lipoproteins in steroidogenesis by the human fetal adrenal cortex.
TLDR
It was found that human fetal adrenal tissue maintained in organ culture secreted appreciable quantities of dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate (DS) and cortisol and plasma lipoproteins are a major source of the cholesterol utilized by the human fetal Adrenal for steroidogenesis.
De novo synthesis of cholesterol by the human fetal adrenal gland.
The rate of de novo synthesis of cholesterol by human fetal adrenal tissue was computed from the rate of incorporation of tritium from [3H]water into cholesterol. Cholesterol biosynthesis in this
The role of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in cholesterol metabolism and steroidogenesis by the human fetal adrenal gland.
TLDR
It is concluded that steroidogenesis, LDL binding, and degradation, as well as de novo synthesis of cholesterol, are probably stimulated in HFA tissue via a cAMP-mediated pathway.
Relative importance of high and low density lipoproteins in the regulation of cholesterol synthesis in the adrenal gland, ovary, and testis of the rat.
TLDR
It is concluded that lipoprotein cholesterol, rather than cholesterol newly synthesized in the glands, is the major substrate for the production of steroid hormones in the adrenal gland, ovary, and testis of the rat.
Metabolism of low density lipoprotein by human fetal adrenal tissue.
TLDR
It is concluded that the HFA utilizes cholesterol derived from LDL for steroidogenesis and that HDL is not metabolized efficiently by the human fetal adrenal.
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