Lipoprotein lipase and lipolysis: central roles in lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis

  • ANTIATHEROGENIC LIPOPROTEINS
  • Published 1996

Abstract

Although it has been known for over 50 years that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglyceride in chylomicrons, during the past half decade there has been a reinterest in the physiologic and pathophysiologic actions of this enzyme. In part, this has coincided with clinical studies implicating increased postprandial lipemia as a risk factor for atherosclerosis development. In addition, the recent creation of genetically altered mice with hypertriglyceridemia has focused the interest of geneticists and physiologists on the pathophysiology of triglyceride metabolism. As reviewed in this article, it is apparent that the lipolysis reaction is only partially understood. Several factors other than LPL are critical modulators of this process, in part, because the reaction requires the lipoproteins to interact with the arterial or capillary wall. Among the factors that affect this are the apolipoprotein composition of the particles, the size of the lipoproteins, and how LPL is displayed along the endothelial luminal surface. Zilversmit’s observation that LPL activity is found in greater amounts in atherosclerotic than normal arteries has led to a large number of experiments linking LPL with atherogenesis. In medium and large arteries LPL is found on the luminal endothelial surface and in macrophage-rich areas within the plaque. LPL actions in both of these locations probably have major effects on the biology of the blood vessel. Possible atherogenic actions for this LPL based on in vitro experiments are reviewed.-Goldberg, I. J. Lipoprotein lipase and lipolysis: central roles in lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis. J. Lipid Res. 1996. 37: 693-707. circulating lipoproteins and the creation of lipolytic products could modulate a number of processes that affect the biology of the vessel wall. The initial portion of this review will concentrate on LPL actions within the capillary beds, actions that modulate the concentrations of circulating lipoproteins. Regulation of LPL expression in tissues and structure function aspects of LPL biochemistry have been reviewed elsewhere ( 1-3). Factors that determine how endothelial-bound LPL is able to interact with circulating lipoproteins will be considered. Aside from its relationship to circulating lipoproteins, LPL hydrolysis of lipoproteins along the arterial wall to produce lipolytic products and remnant lipoproteins may be an atherogenic process. In addition, intra-arterial LPL has been hypothesized to affect lipid accumulation within the artery. A number of other effects of arterial LPL on the biology of macrophages and other cells in the artery will be considered. Finally, the relationship of LPL activity to the generation of atherogenesis in humans will be reviewed. LPL CONTROL OF ATHEROGENIC AND Supplementary key words atherosclerosis lipoproteins ANTIATHEROGENIC LIPOPROTEINS triglyceride cholesterol heparin proteoglycans endothelial cells apolipoprotein fatty acids LPL hydrolysis of chylomicrons

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Cite this paper

@inproceedings{LIPOPROTEINS1996LipoproteinLA, title={Lipoprotein lipase and lipolysis: central roles in lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis}, author={ANTIATHEROGENIC LIPOPROTEINS}, year={1996} }