Lipid analysis of a ground sloth coprolite

  title={Lipid analysis of a ground sloth coprolite},
  author={Fiona L Gill and Matthew P. Crump and Remmert Schouten and Ian D. Bull},
  journal={Quaternary Research},
  pages={284 - 288}
Abstract Coprolites can provide detailed information about the nutritional habits and digestive processes of the animals that produced them and may also yield information about the palaeoenvironment in which the animal existed. To test the utility of the lipid biomarker approach to coprolite analysis, lipids were extracted from a coprolite of the Pleistocene ground sloth Nothrotheriops shastensis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry results revealed a dominant spiroketal sapogenin component… Expand
Lipid analysis of vertebrate coprolites
This work has shown that lipid analysis of coprolites has the potential to reveal unique information about ancient animals and environments and should therefore be considered as a valuable tool for analysis given suitable specimens. Expand
Pollen and lipid analysis of coprolites from Yuhuicun and Houtieying, China: Implications for human habitats and diets
Steroid compounds provide evidence that the excrements originated from dogs and humans, and distribution patterns of n-alkanes and n-fatty alcohols indicate three sources: microorganisms, animal fats and plant wax lipids, further related to intestinal microbes, animal- and plant-derived food. Expand
Steroidal biomarker analysis of a 14,000 years old putative human coprolite from Paisley Cave, Oregon
Results show the predominant presence of 5β-stigmastanol, the biomarker of herbivore fecal matter, supporting micromorphological identification of the coprolite as herbivor. Expand
Abstract: Coprolites are traditionally analyzed from a morphological perspective. Few studies exist from an organic geochemical perspective, and most of these consider recent specimens. This studyExpand
Microbiota and food residues including possible evidence of pre‐mammalian hair in Upper Permian coprolites from Russia
Content, size and shape of the coprolites together with the associated body fossil record suggest that the most probable scat-producers were carnivorous tetrapods; the bone-rich morphotype A reveals short food retention time and a fast metabolism and is therefore assigned to therapsid carnivores whereas morphotype B with rarer and degraded bones are assigned to archosauromorphs or other non-therapsid carnivore. Expand
Coprolites of Late Triassic carnivorous vertebrates from Poland: an integrative approach
The preservation of such labile organic compounds as sterols, palmitin, stearin or levoglucosan attests for rapid, microbially-mediated mineralization of the faeces at very early stages of diagenesis. Expand
Carnivore coprolites from the lower Carnian (Upper Triassic) Chañares Formation, northwestern Argentina
This protocol is applied to identify putative coprolites from the lower Carnian (Upper Triassic) Chanares Formation of northwestern Argentina and provides direct evidence of trophic links in the Chanare ecosystem. Expand
Late Pleistocene coprolites from Qurta (Egypt) and the potential of interdisciplinary research involving micromorphology, plant macrofossil and biomarker analyses
Abstract As part of a rock art dating project at Qurta (Upper Egypt), samples were collected from an organic deposit and from an accumulation of individual faecal pellets. Radiocarbon dating of theseExpand
Faecal biomarker and archaeobotanical analyses of sediments from a public latrine shed new light on ruralisation in Sagalassos, Turkey
The results of the present study support the theory that off-site potsherd scattering can be used as a proxy for manuring events and show key evidence for vertical migration of 5β-stanols and presumably also for the leaching of bile acids. Expand
Assessing Diet and Seasonality in the Lower Pecos Canyonlands: An Evaluation of Coprolite Specimens as Records of Individual Dietary Decisions
Abstract This article presents an evaluation of coprolite specimens from the Lower Pecos canyonlands as records of individual dietary decisions. Prior studies of coprolites from this region haveExpand


Molecular coproscopy: dung and diet of the extinct ground sloth Nothrotheriops shastensis.
DNA from excrements can be amplified by means of the polymerase chain reaction. However, this has not been possible with ancient feces. Cross-links between reducing sugars and amino groups were shownExpand
Bacterial Residues in Coprolite of Herbivorous Dinosaurs: Role of Bacteria in Mineralization of Feces
Observations suggest that bacteria within the capillaries induced initial mineralization of the coprolite, and, in so doing, created barriers that protected organic residues from subsequent destruction. Expand
Sapogenins of Allium porrum L.
Porrigenin C showed a considerable antiproliferative activity on four tumor cell lines in vitro and was elucidated by a detailed spectroscopic analysis based mainly on 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Expand
Identification of insoluble salts of the .beta.-D-glucuronides of episarsasapogenin and epismilagenin in the bile of lambs with alveld and examination of Narthecium ossifragum, Tribulus terrestris, and Panicum miliaceum for sapogenins
A metabolic route for conversion of the sarsasapogenin saponins of N. ossifragum into 1 is proposed by comparison with the NMR spectra of model compounds. Expand
Identification of the calcium salt of epismilagenin .beta.-D-glucuronide in the bile crystals of sheep affected by Panicum dichotomiflorum and Panicum schinzii toxicoses
Crystals isolated from the bile of sheep affected by hepatogenous photosensitization after grazing Panicum dichotomiflorum or Panicum schinzii were soluble in acetic acid but essentially insoluble inExpand
The steroids of 2000-year-old human coprolites.
Six samples of human coprolites, some more than 2,000 years old, were analyzed for fecal steroid composition and the bile acid composition of the coprolite was similar to that of the stool of modern man. Expand
Metabolism of diosgenin-derived saponins: implications for hepatogenous photosensitization diseases in ruminants
The plant saponins administered in this study were readily metabolized, but did not appear to induce crystal-associated hepatogenous photosensitization in the dosed lamb. Expand
Analysis of Steroidal Sapogenins from Amber Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) by Capillary Gas Chromatography and Combined Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry†
Mixtures of steroidal sapogenins isolated from the seed and combined aerial parts (foliage) of fenugreek (cultivar Amber) have been examined by capillary column gas chromatography with mass spectralExpand
Metabolism of Saponins From Narthecium Ossifragum - a Plant Implicated in the Aetiology of Alveld, a Hepatogenous Photosensitization of Sheep
The absence of free and/or conjugated sapogenins in urine, collected 24 h after dosing commenced, indicates that saponins and their metabolites are not likely to be implicated in the kidney disease occurring in ruminants ingesting N. ossifragum. Expand
Morphology, preservation and palaeobiological significance of dinosaur copralites
This paper reviews the coprolites (fossil excrements) of terrestrial vertebrates, giving particular attention to examples that may have originated from dinosaurs. Factors affecting the preservationExpand