Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety

  title={Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety},
  author={Jason W. Osborne},
  journal={Educational Psychology},
  pages={135 - 154}
  • J. Osborne
  • Published 1 February 2007
  • Psychology
  • Educational Psychology
Claude Steele’s stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory—that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance—using real‐time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or low stereotype threat conditions involving a challenging mathematics task while physiological measures of arousal were recorded. Results showed… 

The Effects of Stereotype Threat on State Levels of Stigma Consciousness and Overall Performance on a Stereotype-Relevant Task

Situational anxiety surrounding performance has been shown to adversely impact task performance by members of negatively stereotyped groups, creating a stereotype threat effect. This study tested the

Stereotype Threatening Contexts Enhance Encoding of Negative Feedback to Engender Underperformance and Anxiety

In a recent meta-analysis, women exhibit varied performances on mathematic aptitude tests yet report more negative math perceptions compared to men. One explanation for this is that stereotype

Stereotype Threat, State Anxiety, and Specific Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Promotion Exam Performance

This field study examined perceived stereotype threat in a promotion context using a written job knowledge test. The authors hypothesized that race and ethnic identity would predict perceptions of

Stereotypes and the Achievement Gap: Stereotype Threat Prior to Test Taking

Stereotype threat is known as a situational predicament that prevents members of negatively stereotyped groups to perform up to their full ability. This review shows that the detrimental influence of

Stereotype Threat Reduces Motivation to Improve

According to stereotype threat theory, negative stereotypes impair performance and can lead to reduced motivation. In the present study, we examined whether the female-mathematics stereotype not only

The effect of stereotype threat on women's mathematical performance and motivation

Stereotype threat theory (STT) asserts that targets of negative stereotypes experience a performance-interfering evaluative threat, which arises from a pressure to disconfirm the relevant stereotype.

Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Performance on a Novel Visuospatial Task

Stereotype threat research has shown that being a member of a negatively stereotyped group may result in impaired performance on tests of skills thought to be relevant to the stereotype. This study

Fulfilling Positive Stereotypical Expectations, Performance Boosts or Performance Decrements?

academic) There is plenty of research on effects of negative stereotypes on performance, but less is known about effects of positive stereotypes. Research examining effects of positive stereotypes on

The Influence of Stereotype Threat and Implicit Theories of Emotion on Gender Differences in Emotional Intelligence

The current study investigated the effects of stereotype threat on emotional intelligence (EI) performance and the utility of implicit theories of emotion (ITE; fixed/growth mind-set) to reduce


The experimental literature has consistently uncovered evidence of stereotype threat, but the field studies evaluating stereotype threat have not. An important difference between most lab and field



Testing Stereotype Threat: Does Anxiety Explain Race and Sex Differences in Achievement?

  • J. Osborne
  • Psychology
    Contemporary educational psychology
  • 2001
Examination of whether anxiety will explain racial differences in academic performance and gender differences in math performance in the context of a nationally representative sample of high school seniors provided general support for Steele's stereotype-threat hypothesis.

Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.

The role of stereotype vulnerability in the standardized test performance of ability-stigmatized groups is discussed and mere salience of the stereotype could impair Blacks' performance even when the test was not ability diagnostic.

Converging evidence that stereotype threat reduces working memory capacity.

Results show that priming self-relevant negative stereotypes reduces women's and Latinos' working memory capacity and mediates the effect of stereotype threat on women's math performance.

When White Men Can't Do Math: Necessary and Sufficient Factors in Stereotype Threat

Abstract Research on “stereotype threat” (Aronson, Quinn, & Spencer, 1998; Steele, 1997; Steele & Aronson, 1995) suggests that the social stigma of intellectual inferiority borne by certain cultural

A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance.

  • C. Steele
  • Psychology
    The American psychologist
  • 1997
Research shows that this threat dramatically depresses the standardized test performance of women and African Americans who are in the academic vanguard of their groups, that it causes disidentification with school, and that practices that reduce this threat can reduce these negative effects.

Stereotype Threat and Women's Math Performance

Abstract When women perform math, unlike men, they risk being judged by the negative stereotype that women have weaker math ability. We call this predicament stereotype threat and hypothesize that

Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance

Recent studies have documented that performance in a domain is hindered when individuals feel that a sociocultural group to which they belong is negatively stereotyped in that domain. We report that

Working Memory Capacity in High Trait-anxious and Repressor Groups

The verbal reasoning performance of high-anxious (high trait anxiety, low defensiveness), defensive high-anxious (high trait anxiety, high defensiveness), repressor (low trait anxiety, high

A burden of proof: Stereotype relevance and gender differences in math performance.

Three studies explored gender differences in mathematics performance by investigating the possibility that men and women have different concerns when they take standardized math tests, and that when